Q1. What is Universal Adult Franchise? Ans: Under the Constitution of India following the democratic norm, elections are held on the principle of Universal Adult Franchise whereby every citizen of 18 years of age and above, irrespective of caste, colour, race, religion, education, income and sex, has the right to vote. Q2. Mention two advantages of Adult Franchise? Ans: The two advantages of Adult Franchise are: i.
Rule of the people without considerations of caste, creed, sex, social position or wealth ii. Governments are accountable to the people, their electors Q3. What do you understand by— a) General Election. b) By-Election. Ans: (a) When citizens across the country vote to elect the Lower House of Parliament or the Lok Sabha, it is called a General Election. It is held every five years.
(b) A By-Election is held when a seat in the Lok Sabha or Vidhan Sabha falls vacant due to death or resignation of its elected representative. A By-Election takes place for only one or a few seats at a time. Q4. Which elections are indirect elections? Ans: Elections to the Rajya Sabha, Vidhan Parishads and the posts of President and Vice President are indirect. Here the people do not vote directly but their elected representatives, i.e.
the M.Ps and the M.L.As vote on their behalf. Q5. What is a constituency? Ans: A constituency is a definite geographical area, the voters of which elect a particular representative to a designated seat in the Lok Sabha, Vidhan Sabha or a rural or urban local body. Q6.
What are a Single-Member and a Multi-member constituency? Ans: If only one member is elected from a constituency, it is known as a Single-Member constituency and if several representatives are elected from the same constituency, then it is called a Multi-member constituency. Q7. What is the composition of the Election Commission? Ans: Election Commission is a three-member body comprising of the Chief Election Commissioner and two Election Commissioners. Q8. Mention any two features of Representation of Peoples Act as amended in 1996? Ans: The two main features of Representation of Peoples Act are: i. The period of effective campaigning was reduced from 20 to 14 days ii.
No person would be allowed to contest the elections from more than two constituencies simultaneously Q9. What is the term of office of the Chief Election Commissioner? Ans: The Chief Election Commissioner and the Election Commissioners can hold office for six years or till they attain the age of 65 years, whichever is earlier. Q10. How can the Chief Election Commissioner be removed from his office? Ans: The Chief Election Commissioner can only be impeached on grounds of proven misbehaviour or incapacity, after a motion is passed against him by a majority of the total membership of both Houses of Parliament, and a majority of not less than two-thirds of the members present and voting in each House. Q11. Mention two powers/functions of the Election Commission. Ans: The two powers/functions of the Election Commission are: i. Enforcement of Electoral laws ii.
Registration of Political Parties Q12. What is a secret ballot? Ans: Secret ballot is when a voter casts his vote by placing a seal/mark against the symbol and name of the candidate of the party of his choice or by pressing the button of the electronic voting machine. Q13. Mention two reasons for a ballot paper becoming invalid? Ans: If a ballot paper is not marked at all, or if the voter indicates his choice for more than one candidate then a ballot paper becomes invalid. Q14. What is meant by delimitation of a constituency? Ans: The Election Commission is empowered to determine the limits or boundaries of a constituency.
This is known as delimitation of a constituency. Q15. What is the spending limit of a Lok Sabha candidate? Ans: The spending limit of a Lok Sabha candidate is Rs. 15 lakhs. Q16. Mention any two ways by which the Election Commission tries to ensure free and fair elections? Ans: i. As soon as the election schedule is announced, A Model Code of Conduct comes into force to ensure a free and fair poll whereby the Election Commission prohibits certain actions on the part of the candidates and political parties before an election ii.
The Election Commission lays down the rules for the election campaign whereby the candidates/parties are not allowed to use communal, divisive or inflammatory propaganda Q17. Who is the current Chief Election Commissioner? Whom did he succeed? Ans: Mr T.Krishnamurthy is the current Chief Election Commissioner.
He succeeded Mr J.M. Lyngdoh. Q18. What do Articles 324(1) and 324(2) state? Ans: Article 324 (1) vests in the Election Commission the power of superintendence, direction and control over the conduct of all elections to Parliament, State Legislatures and the offices of the President and the Vice-President of India. Article 324 (2) lays down that the Election Commission of India shall consist of a Chief Election Commissioner and such other Election Commissioners as the President may appoint from time to time. Q19.
Who are the Returning Officers? Ans: At the time of elections, the District Magistrates act as the Returning Officers at the district and constituency levels. They report to the Election Commission during that period. Q20. Who is a Chief Electoral Officer? Ans: Election work at the State level is supervised and directed by a Chief Electoral Officer who is appointed by the Election Commission from a list of senior civil servants suggested to it by the State Government concerned. In most states, the Chief Electoral Officer is a full-time official with a Deputy Chief Electoral Officer and a supporting staff.