Highly efficient PowerGeneration Using Peltier Module Abstract- Generating electricity in present there is ashortage of fossil fuel, oil, gas, etc. burning of these fuels causesenvironmental problem like radio activity pollution, global warming etc. Sothat these (coal, oil, gas) are the limiting resources hence resulting newtechnology is needed for electricity generation, by using thermoelectricgenerators to generate power as a most promising technology and environmentalfree and several advantages in production.
Thermoelectric coolers can convertdirectly thermal (heat) energy into electrical energy. In this TEC there are nomoving parts and it cannot be produce any waste during power production henceit is consider as a green technology. This Thermoelectric generator convertswaste heat in to generate electricity by this it can eliminate harmful emissions,so we can believe this a green technology. Thermoelectric power generationoffer a potential application in the direct exchange of waste-heat energy intoelectrical power where it is unnecessary to believe the cost of the thermalenergy input. The battery which is used can be recharged with the generationinputs like Peltier. The battery is connected to the DC Boost Converter&inverter. From this energy the ac motor can be controlled using inverterdesign.
Index Terms—Peltier module, waste-heat recovery, Thermoelectricgenerator, seebeck effect. 1 INTRODUCTIONThese days thedemand of electricity is rising tremendously with the growing industries andhousehold electrical appliances. To fulfill these daily requirements differentenergy sources like coal, water, wind and solar energy are employed at a veryhigh cost. From all these sources, energy is extracted and utilized but thedemand for power is still at large. Even though the world is fast changing anddeveloping there are still many villages and far flung areas where electricityis not reached and still a demand. From some the power generation method afterharvesting energy, heat is simply wasted as byproduct into the environment. Ifsuch heat can be converted even in a small mill watt range, it can be reuse indomestic low power lighting and in running low power consumption electronicproducts.
According to thermodynamics law of energy also known as law ofconservation of energy, energy cannot be created nor destroy but can betransform from one form to another. A design flow is suggested for the proposednetwork. Analysis is conducted regarding aspects of the design flow. Severalstate-of-the-art thermoelectric materials are analyzed for the purpose of powergeneration at each waste heat harvesting location on a vehicle.
Optimalmaterials and TE couple configurations are suggested. Besides, a comparison ofprevailing DC-DC conversion techniques was made with respect to applications ateach conversion level within the network. Furthermore, higher level designconsiderations are discussed according to system specifications. Finally, acase study is performed comparing the performances of the proposed network andtraditional single-stage system.2. PELTIER MODULEDifferent workhas been carried out recently by different experts to generate electricity fromheat source.
When one side of the Peltier module is focus and heated by Fresnellens and the other side is attached with heat sink DC voltage can be obtained asreported by 1. Another innovative and effective way to harvest power duringday time is by using highly concentrated solar disc to heat the hot junctionwhich is kept at the focus of the parabola dish as suggested by 2. Toovercome the problem of depletion of battery charge of Cell phones whiletravelling, body heat is also converted into voltage to charge the battery 3.And moreover in cooking gas the upper flame of the burner is use for conductingheat and the surrounding part of the flame around the burner is wastednormally. This wasted heat can also be converting into electrical energy aspresented by 4. Figure 1.1 Simplified illustration of TEC.
3. EXISTING METHODSØ The reserves of fossil fuels will soon bedepleted, since oil is a limited resource. Ø Over the years, the cost of electricity hasrisen to unprecedented levels due the limited supply of oil and economic andpolitical factors. Ø Wind energy, hydro energy and with othertechnologies which have their own limitations, making them insufficient forwider usage.Ø The mostimportant factors for choosing the kind of renewable generators are location,time and user needs. Ø Location associates information about climate,energy sources availability and environment conditions, this information isvery important to decide.
4. PROPOSED METHODØ In this project the conversion of waste heatinto generate electricity by using thermoelectric Cooler (TEC). Ø Waste may refrigerator heat, vehicle radiatorheat, laptop heat, even body heat can be used as a input source as a waste heatto generate electricity and it can be charged directly mobile battery and alsostored in a rechargeable lead acid battery for further usage. Ø And also waste energy human body locomotion alsoproduce electricity body weight locomotion of the energy in to electricalenergy by using electromagnetic induction principle. The control mechanismcarries regulator circuit etc. and the power saving mechanism carriesmicrocontroller relays etc.
Fig: 4.1 System Block Diagram 4.1 WorkingØ When the two sides of semiconductor aremaintained with different temperature,the EMF is flows across the output circuit.
Ø As the heat moves from hot side to cold side,the charge carrier moves in thesemiconductor materials and hence thepotential deference is created. Ø The electrons are the charge carriers in thecase of N-type semiconductor and Hole are in P-type semiconductors. Ø In a stack, number of P-type and N-type semiconductorsis connected. Ø A single PN connection can produce a Seebeck voltage of 40 mV.
Ø The heat source such as natural gas or propaneare used for remote power generation 4.2 Hardware& SoftwareØ PIC 16F877AØ Peltier PlateØ Driver UnitØ TransformerØ MAT labØ Embedded ‘c’ 5. GENERAL REVIEW OF DC-DC CONVERTERS.
5.1Principle of DC-DC Converters.There are twomajor concerns in the design of DC-DC converters: efficiency and regulation.The issue of efficiency arises since almost all circuit has resistive componentsor parasitic resistors, which are power consuming during the functioning of theconverter. That is to say, designers need to optimize the efficiency of the Converter,although efficiency can never reach 100%. The issue of regulation is caused dueto the fact that all power sources are not absolutely constant; however, manyelectronics require a certain level of stability of power supply.
Up until now,there are already various design techniques and optimized components addressingthese issues. The generalprinciple of DC-DC converters involves the storage of electrical energy intocomponents, such as capacitors and inductors, and the release of energy toloads. By controlling the time forenergy storage and release, average voltage level appeared at the converterload can be controlled. The average load voltage level can thus be eitherhigher or lower than the voltage level of the power source.
The rotation of energy storage state and energy release state isfulfilled by switching devices. Nowadays, the most common switching device usedin DC-DC converter is transistor. The length of time for each state within oneswitching period is reflected by the duty cycle of the signal fed to the gateof switching transistors.
Almost all modern DC-DC converters utilizepulse-width-modulation (PWM) signal as the switching control signal for itsadvantage of linear control over the load power 30. If we denote theswitching period as Ts, and the on-time of the switching transistor Ton, theduty cycle of the PWM signal is thus 5.2 InverterThe inverter denotes a class of power conversion (or power conditioning) circuits that operates with a dc voltage source or a dc current source as input and converts it into acvoltage or current. The inverter operates as the reverse of ac -to-dc converter. Eventhough input to an inverter circuit is a dc source, it is not uncommon to havethis dc derived from an ac source such as utility ac supply. The simplest dc voltagesource for a VSI may be a battery bank,which may consist of several cells in series-parallel combination. Solar photovoltaic cells can be another dcvoltage source.
An ac voltage supply, after rectification into dc will also qualify as a dc voltage source. All voltage source inverters assume stiffvoltage supply at the input. For an ideal input (dc) supply, with no series impedance, the dc link capacitor does not have any role. However a practical voltage supply mayhave considerable amount of output impedance.
The supply line impedance, if not bypassed by a sufficiently large dc link capacitor, may cause considerable voltage spike at the dc bus during inverter operation. Fig.5.2.1 Circuit diagram of VSI 5.3 Pulse width modulationOutput voltagefrom an inverter can also be adjusted by exercising a control within theinverter itself. The most efficient method of doing this is by pulse-widthmodulation control used within an inverter.In this method,a fixed dc input voltage is given to the inverter and a controlled ac output voltage is obtained by adjusting the onand off periods of the inverter components.
This is the most popular method of controlling the output voltage and this method is termed as Pulse-Width Modulation (PWM) Control. 6. CONCLUSIONThe Seebeckeffect-based thermoelectric power source using TEC module has been presented inthis paper. One great advantage of the designed concept is that the TEC energy harvesteris employed to recover waste heat in industrial process as a renewable energysource and green technology.
Experimental results confirm that the designedDC-DC boost converter is able to produce the desired output voltage forpowering other electronic circuit. A stage of DC-DC boost converter can beconnected to the designed DC-DC boost converter if higher output voltage isrequired and inverter used for AC Applications. REFERENCES 1 M. Jaegle,”Multiphysics Simulation of Thermoelectric Systems – Modeling of Peltier-Cooling and Thermoelectric Generation,” no.
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