Heroin States of America would be the

Heroin derivesfrom the opium poppy plant. Heroin, as todays society knows it, was originallychemically made in 1874 by a man called C.

R.A Wright who was a pharmacist atthis time. Wright figured out that by isolating the morphine molecules found inthe opium poppy and adding two components from the Acetyl group (expand).Ironically,Heroin was first sold over the counter from pharmacies in 1898 in the form of acough mixture. To parallel this to modern day it would be branded and seen likeCovonia is.Pharmaceuticalcompanies in todays society have to be regulated and medications FDA approved (expand)before any medications can be sold to the public. However, back in the late1800’s those methods of safety measures were not in place.

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It was after anumber of years had passed that the devastating effects of heroin started tobecome apparent. Once the heroin was administered, whether for example orally assomething like the cough mixture or intravenously as a pain reliever, that itmetabolised in the body and turned into potent morphine which is highly addictive.German pharmaceuticalcompany called Bayer were the first company to buy the rights to the newlynamed (quote heroin in German heroisch to show why heroin got its name – made youfeel strong etc) Heroin in 1894 and had supplies ready to be distributed by1898.

Bayer was left red faced however because it was not until distributionthat it became apparent that what they had widely advertised as a non-addictivesubstitute for the likes of codeine was in fact much more virulent.It would be afurther (?) years before until the United States of America would be the firstcountry to recognise heroin in its socially destructive and lethal entirety.1914 seen the US criminalise the drug and make it illegal to obtain anywherewithout a prescription (diacetylmorphine) but it would be a further ten yearsbefore that aspect was also made illegal.

The United Kingdom had a slowerreaction to the ever-growing drug crisis and did not make the drug illegal otherwiseprescribed by a Doctor until The Rollinson Committee Report criminalised it in1926 (reference and quote, illegal to possess distribute and supply). It duringthis period that manufacturers lost there rights to produce the drug whichsubsequently forced the heroin trade underground. (Expand on the purity ofheroin and how because of the above and with it being forced underground thisthen led to the purity becoming lower or higher? And being cut with otherharmful things)Some may say that this led to the ultimate destruction or nonregulatory drug use (expand)deaths and overdoses (name high profile death of a star UK/US e.g.)that The Brian Committee recommended methadone… Heroin hasdevastating effects on the user and also the society around them.

It has both psychologicaland physical effects which have an enormous impact on that individual. Heroin destroysteeth and reduces bone density, causes the lining of the heart to becomeinfected leading to coronary issues, collapsed veins from injecting and exposesthe user to HIV and hepatitis from using potentially unclean syringes. Theseare just a small number of side effects from Heroin use but they all too oftenlead to death. Psychologicallyaddiction of the person also becomes apparent as the drug metabolises intoMorphine in the body, it sends the user into what has been described (quote) asa euphoric state. However, this is short lived as eventually the effects of usewear off. This state of euphoria lessens with every use as the body states tobuild up a tolerance to the drug.Prominentways of thinking around illicit drug use in both past and present societiesstem from Foucauldian modes of thought (quote). Foucaultestablished very intellectually written and thought out theories on why societywas perceived to be hooked on this drug as well as other illegal substances(quote).

His theoriesgained support during the late twentieth century as people did not have the resourcesor knowledge like they do today to make well informed opinions on the subject. Theoriesare used to provide substance to the concepts of individuals or groups ofpeople collectively, in a society where Heroin use was apparent and rapidlybecoming of detriment to many people the Foucauldian modes of thought wouldprovide them answers. Foucault ultimately provided them with theories that wereacceptable to them as they were in conjunction with their empirical realitiesof society.

 The Foucauldianconcept of Bio-power has shifted from a repressive approach through the seventiethand eighteenth centuries to that of a constructive approach through the nineteenth and twentieth century through to today. Biopower forFoucault stands out from conventional methods of supreme rule in which the threatof death from the State or Sovereign was paramount in keeping the populationorderly. In a time like our own where control must be advocated sanely and on ahumanitarian basis, Biopower is used by an accentuation on the security andsanctity of life as opposed to the danger of death and in turn led to thegeneration of different advancements of Power over the population.


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