Heavy visible. Various treatment processes for remediation of

Heavy metals discharged from different
industrial and treatment plants to the environment have received serious
attention because of their toxic, non-degradable, and bio
accumulative effect on
aquatic as well as to the human life. Among many known heavy
metals (specific gravity ? 5) like: Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb;  Cu (II) is widely used in many industries
including metal cleaning and plating baths, printed board circuit production, paints
and pigments, fertilizer,  pulp and paper
etc. (Kumar et al. 2011). Copper is one of important element required by humans
in trace amount for its role in enzyme synthesis, tissues and bones development
(Bilal et al. 2013). However, the divalent copper (Cu (II)) is toxic and
carcinogenic if consumed in excess. The excessive consumption of Cu (II) leads
to health related problems like deposition in liver leading to subsequent
vomiting, nausea, headache, respiratory problems, liver and kidney failure,
abdominal pain and gastrointestinal bleeding (Akar et al. 2009).

 In the present scenario, regulations which
control the concentration of toxic heavy metals from industrial effluents are
becoming more and more demanding (Ramos et al. 2016), as their adverse effect
is clearly visible. Various
treatment processes for remediation of Cu (II) from water and wastewater
include chemical precipitation (Fu and Wang 2011), floatation (Sudilovskiy
et al. 2008), air dissolved
floatation (ADS) (Lundh et al. 2000), coagulation/flocculation (Kurniawan
et al. 2006), ion exchange (Cavaco
et al. 2007; Alyuz and Veli 2009; Motsi et al. 2009; Inglezakis et al. 2002), complexion/sequestration
(Fu and Wang 2011),
electrochemical operation (Barakat 2011), membrane separation (Barakat and Schmidt 2010; Ahmad and Ooi 2010), reverse osmosis (Greenlee
et al. 2009), solvent
extraction, electro-flotation, biological treatment, and adsorption. Though, most
of the above mentioned methods are effective for treating high concentrations
of heavy metal ions but they are costly and not eco-friendly (Abdelwahab
et al. 2015). Adsorption using
activated carbon is much preferable due to its economic and effective removal of
low concentration of metal ions (<100 mg/ l), e.g. Cu (II) from water and wastewater (Hossain et al. 2012). Adsorption can be operated in batch and fixed-bed columns. It is a reversible process i.e. adsorbents can be regenerated and reused in the process (Fu and Wang 2011). Activated carbon is considered as an effective adsorbent because of its high surface area and high degree of surface chemistry (Demiral and Gungor 2016). However, high cost for procuring of commercial activated carbon makes it more expensive adding a disadvantage to it. This has created interest to the researchers for the production of activated carbon from renewable and cheaper resources. Many researches have produced activated carbon from cheaper materials like: palm solid waste, hazelnut husk, rice husk, orange peels, southern hardwood, etc. Parthenium hysterophorous has widely spread in India, china, Australia, Pacific islands, etc. In the present work, Parthenium hysterophorous also known carrot weed, an annual herbaceous weed, was collected and thermally treated to produce low cost effective activated carbon for the removal of Cu(II) from aqueous solution under various operating conditions (solution pH, adsorbent dose, temperature, initial solution concentration). Kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamic studies have been done for the adsorption of Cu (II) from aqueous solution.


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