Heart heart muscle which is known as remod-

Heart attack, two words that people don’twant to hear for a rst time and de nitelydon’t want to hear for a second.

e heartis one of the most important organs in thehuman body as it is responsible for pump-ing blood across the entire body. Whensomeone has a heart attack, the coronaryartery which supplies the heart with ox-ygen-rich blood gets clogged. e heartcannot properly function without oxy-gen and nutrients which actually causesthe tissues in the heart to becomedamaged and even die in some cas-es (About Heart Attacks, 2018). When the body undergoes a cardiovascular eventsuchasaheartattackthecardiacoutputinthebodylowers which causes the narrowing of blood vesselsand causes the body to divert blood ow from lessvital organs and tissues such as the kidney. e heartalso then has to work harder which causes chang-es in the heart muscle which is known as remod-elling, this also can cause the heart to sti en whichreduces its ability to pump blood even further (Run-ge et al., 2011) . Within the course of 1 year thereare approximately 790,000 reported incidents ofheart attacks in the United States alone (Blaha et al.

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,2017)and an approximate 7.4 million cases world-wide (Cardiovascular Diseases, 2017). People whohave experienced a heart attack before are also 20%likely to have a repeat heart attack within the sameyear (Richards, 2012).

However, physicians anddoctors are hailing a drug known as Canakinum-as a new wonder drug to reduce the risk of cardio-vascular events such as strokes or heart attacks.Normally heart attack medications target the cho-lesterol in the body as it would clog the arteries byclumping together in the vessels and preventingoxygenated blood from reaching the heart. How-ever, newer research showed that an excess amountof a chemical known as Interleukin-1 beta whichcauses in ammation can prevent the heart fromrepairing itself by causing the heart to sti en andapplying excess pressure and strain on it. Canaki-numab works by reducing the amount of Inter-leukin-1 beta found in the blood which helps toreduce the in ammation which relieves some ofthe strain on the heart and allowing it to properlyheal (Foley, 2017). Normally the heart repairs it-self by regenerating scar tissue in place of the oldcardiac tissues which were a ected in during theattack.

However, if excess in ammation is causedby increased amounts of Interleukin-1 beta it maynot allow for the heart to fully repair itself whichcauses it to be more susceptible to a repeat attack. Since Canakinumab reduces the Interleukin-1 betalevels in the blood it causes the in ammation to de-crease which allows the heart proper time and lessstrain so that it can properly repair itself so that itwill be less susceptible to a repeat heart attack orother cardiovascular event (Concanaugher, 2018).In a study funded by Novartis which included10,000 patients in 40 di erent countries, Canaki-numab was tested to see if it reduced the cardiovas-cular risk in people who had survived a heart at-tack. e patients in the clinical trial were dividedinto 4 categories, the rst being the placebo group,the second being the group given 50mg of canki-numab every 3 months, the third being the groupgiven 150mg every 3 months and the fourth beingthe one given 300mg every 3 months. e results of the study showed that the group with 50mg ofcanakinumab had 4.11 events per year per 100 peo-ple, for the 150mg group there were 3.86 events peryear which was a 15% lower risk compared to theplacebo and for the 300mg group there were 3.90events per 100 people per year which was a 14%lower risk.

During the course of the entire 4-yearstudy there were only 1,400 reported incidents ofcardiovascular events out of the 10,000 patients(Ridker et al., 2017). A er the results were present-ed at the European Society of Cardiology in Bar-celona, experts have spoken about a link betweenheart attacks and in ammation. Canakinumab wasapproved by the FDA originally for the treatment ofrare in ammatory diseases but has recently begunuse as a treatment a er heart attacks a er the study.Dr. Paul Ridker at the Harvard Medical School saidthat “For the rst time, we’ve been able to de n-itively show that lowering in ammation indepen-dent of cholesterol reduces cardiovascular risk.

“(Reducing in ammation without lowering cho-lesterol cuts risk of cardiovascular events, 2017).    

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