AP Human Geo
September 21, 2018
United Nations 2018 Human Development Index Update and Sustainability
Task 1: 2018 UN HDI
Countries in conflict are the ones who decline.
The three largest decreases in HDI rank are The Syrian Arab Republic, Libya, and Yemen.
The Syrian Arab Republic fell 27 places.
Libya fell 26 places.
Yemen fell 20 places.
According to the 2018 HDI update, how many countries are at each level of development?
Highly developed: 59 countries
High developing: 53 countries
Medium developing: 39 countries
Low developing: 38 countries
Statistical Key Findings: (A bulleted list is expected with GOOD notes. Cite examples of countries and use chart data too)
1. THE WORLD HAS MADE IMPRESSIVE PROGRESS IN HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
In the last 30 years, regions all over the world and all of different human development levels had made beneficial changes that increase their HDI.
Positive HDI developments are affected by changes in health, education, and income.
Life expectancy at birth has increased by seven years.
South Asia and Sub – Saharan Africa have both increased their life expectancies by 11 years since 1990.
For education, the expected number of years in school is 3.4 years longer than it was in 1990.
People around the world have long life expectancies, are more educated, and have bigger and better opportunities.
2. QUALITY, NOT JUST QUANTITY OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT, IS IMPORTANT, AND IT REVEALS LARGE DEFICITS
Although the life expectancy may be high, the healthy life expectancy is not as high.
In a country with very high human development, the overall life expectancy is almost ten years long than the healthy life expectancy. (69.9 to 79.5)
In a country with low human development, the life expectancy is approximately 61 years, but the healthy life expectancy is only about 53. (8 year difference)
High human development has a healthy life expectancy of 68 and a life expectancy of 76.
Medium human development has a healthy life expectancy of 60 and a overall life expectancy of 69.
Human development needs to start focusing on the quality of these factors, not solely quantity.
3. PROGRESS IS NOT LINEAR OR GUARANTEED, AND CRISES AND CHALLENGES CAN REVERSE GAINS. COUNTRIES EXPERIENCING CONFLICT SHOW HDI LOSSES, WHICH CAN BE FELT FOR GENERATIONS
In Human Development, it is also possible for it to drop immensely if something occurs. For example, violent conflict.
Libya, the Syrian Arab Republic, and Yemen all had declines in their HDI values and ranks.
Yemen decreased by 20 places, Libya by 26, and the Syrian Arab Republic by 27. All from the effects of violent conflict.
4. DISPARITIES BETWEEN AND WITHIN COUNTRIES CONTINUE TO STIFLE PROGRESS
Although the level of HDI have risen, there is still a big gap between countries in how the people in the countries are living.
There is unequal distribution of education, life expectancy and income WITHIN countries.
This is measured by IHDI. (The greater the inequality, the more a country’s HDI falls)
There is inequality in most countries, even the highest developed countries, but it has a greater effect on the countries with lower human development levels.
High human development countries lose 11 percent of their human development level, while low human development countries lose 31 percent.
5. GENDER GAPS IN EARLY YEARS ARE CLOSING, BUT INEQUALITIES PERSIST IN ADULTHOOD
The average HDI for women is six percent lower than for men because of the lower income and educational achievements. This is a key source of inequality between countries.
There is a gap in opportunities, empowerment, and achievements.
Globally, the participation in labor is 49 percent for women, and 75 percent for men.
Unemployment rates are also 24 percent higher for women.
There is also violence against women, childhood marriage, and high adolescent birth rates. These all take a toll on the opportunities for young women.
Disadvantages facing women are a major source of inequality, and it is one of the largest things that affects HDI for countries.
GDI – Reports female and male achievements in the basic dimensions of human development.
HDI value for women is 0.705
HDI value for men is 0.749
Gap is affected by the lower income and educational attainment of women.
GII – Captures the inequalities women face in reproductive health, education, political representation and the labour market.
High GII value = a larger gender inequality.
6. ENVIRONMENTAL DEGRADATION PUTS HUMAN DEVELOPMENT GAINS AT RISK
Topic threatens the human development of current and future generations
Degradation of the environment/atmosphere, declines in biodiversity, declining food, declining water supplies, and problems from extreme weather events.
HHD (high human development) countries = biggest contributors to climate change
Deforestation = reduces quantity and quality of freshwater. Is linked to climate change and biodiversity loss.
Pace of deforestation has slowed down recently.
LHD (low human development) countries lost 14.5 percent of its forests.
Task 2: The UN’s Sustainable Development Goals
Follow all directions below. It should take you approximately 25-30 minutes to complete task 2 in its entirety.
Use earbuds to watch this video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aLrLcODGMmo&feature=youtu.be
While watching, answer these questions:
What progress was made by the Millenium Development Goals?
The UNDP championed the eight goals all around the world. They funded projects, and helped countries track progress .
The number of people who live off of $1.25 has been cut in calf. The number of kids in primary school who don’t go to school is down by almost half. The number of people getting life saving treatment for HIV has increased almost 15 times.
What were the new goals established by the United Nations?
The new goals established by the United Nations was the sustainable development goals. (SDGs)
Then read more in depth about the SDG’s here:
You will see 17 interactive goals list them at the corresponding number. Click on each goal and jot down two “Key Facts or Figures” that drive the reason for the goal.
650 million people still live in extreme poverty.
In 2014, an average of 42,000 people had to abandon their homes due to conflict everyday.
2. One of four kids suffer from stunted growth.
? of Asia’s population is hungry
3. 6 million children die before reaching their fifth birthday.
Children born into poverty are almost twice as likely to die before the age of 5 as those from wealthier families.
4.In developing countries, one in four girls is not in school.
103 million youth worldwide lack basic literacy skills
5. Globally, women earn only 77 cents for every dollar that men earn doing the same work.
Up to 7 in 10 women around the world experience physical and/or sexual violence at some point in their lifetime.
6.Water scarcity affects more than 40 percent of the global population, and that figure is projected to rise.
2.4 billion people worldwide do not have access to basic sanitation services like toilets or latrines.
7. as of 2011, more than 20 percent of power is generated through renewable sources.
More than 40 percent of the world’s population, 3 billion people, rely on polluting and unhealthy fuels for cooking.
8.470 million jobs will be needed to absorb new entrants to the labour market between 2016 and 2030.
The global unemployment rate stood at 5.6 percent in 2017, corresponding to 192.7 million unemployed persons.
9.2.6 billion people in developing countries do not have access to constant electricity.
More than 4 billion people still do not have access to the Internet; 90 percent of them are in the developing world.
10.In developing countries, rural women are up to three times more likely to die in childbirth than women living in urban centres.
The richest 10 percent earn up to 40 percent of total global income.
11. 3.5 billion people, half of the world’s population, live in cities. By 2050, the urban population is expected to reach 6.5 billion
Cities occupy just 3 percent of the Earth’s land but account for 60 to 80 percent of energy consumption and 75 percent of carbon emissions.
12.1.3 billion tonnes of food is wasted every year, while almost 2 billion people go hungry or undernourished.
Globally, 2 billion people are overweight or obese.
13.From 1880 to 2012, average global temperature increased by 0.85°C.
From 1901 to 2010, the global average sea level rose by 19 cm as oceans expanded due to warming temperatures and melting ice.
14.The ocean covers three quarters of the Earth’s surface and represents 99 percent of the living space on the planet by volume.
As much as 40 percent of the ocean is heavily affected by pollution, depleted fisheries, loss of coastal habitats and other human activities.
15.Around 1.6 billion people depend on forests for their livelihoods.
Forests are home to more than 80 percent of all terrestrial species of animals, plants and insects.
16.In 46 countries, women now hold more than 30 percent of seats in at least one chamber of the national parliament.
There are also 10 million stateless people around the world who have been denied a nationality and related rights.
17. Total official development assistance reached a peak of US$142.6 billion in 2016.
More than 4 billion people do not use the Internet, and 90 percent of them are from the developing world.
Watch this video and take bulleted notes:
Video is restricted and will not let me watch.