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AIM:
To
prepare the case study for GSM(Global System for Mobile
Communications).
Software
Required:
Internet,
MS Word
Theory:
Introduction:
GSM
(Global
System for Mobile Communications)
is a standard developed by the European Telecommunications Standards
Institute (ETSI) to describe the protocols for second-generation
digital cellular networks used by mobile devices such as tablets, it
has become the global standard for mobile communications.
“GSM”
is a trademark owned by the GSM Association. It may also refer to the
(initially) most common voice codec used, Full Rate.

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According to
the GSM Association (GSMA), which represents the interests of the
worldwide mobile communications industry, it’s approximated that 80%
of the world uses GSM technology when placing wireless calls.

Features:

Improved
spectrum efficiency

International
roaming

Compatibility
with integrated services digital network (ISDN)

Support
for new services.

SIM
phonebook management

Fixed
dialing number (FDN)

Real
time clock with alarm management

High-quality
speech

Uses
encryption to make phone calls more secure

Short
message service (SMS)

Block
Diagram:The
following diagram shows the GSM network along with the added
elements:

Components:

The
generic GSM network architecture is composed of three subsystems as
the Radio Subsystem (RSS), the network and Switching Subsystem (NSS)
and the Operation Subsystem (OSS). The subscriber carries the Mobile
Station, which is part or RSS.

 

Radio
Substation (RSS)
The
RSS consists of the components that are necessary in order to
allocate the radio resources to the individual subscribers. It
principally consists of the mobile terminals (mobile phone or mobile
station, MS) and the base station subsystem (BSS).
Network
switching subsystem
(NSS)
(or GSM
core network)

It
is the component of a GSM system that carries out call switching and
mobility management functions for mobile phones roaming on the
network of base stations. It is owned and deployed by mobile phone
operators and allows mobile devices to communicate with each other
and telephones in the wider public switched telephone network (PSTN).
The architecture contains specific features and functions which are
needed because the phones are not fixed in one location.
The
NSS originally consisted of the circuit-switched core network, used
for traditional GSM services such as voice calls, SMS, and circuit
switched data calls. It was extended with an overlay architecture to
provide packet-switched data services known as the GPRS core network.
This allows mobile phones to have access to services such as WAP, MMS
and the Internet.

Mobile
Station (MS)
MS
is basically mobile equipment (the handset) which comprises all user
equipment and software needed for mobile communication and a smart
card called the Subscriber Identity Module (SIM). The MS, which
contain a SIM, card in the form of a very small chip bside the
equipment.
The
Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) contains all subscriber information
necessary for identifying GSM subscriber. Broadly, it holds a
subscriber’s International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI),
authentication key and algorithm. SIM is independent of the device or
handset In which it is being used because an MS can be identified via
International Mobile Equipment Identity (IMEI). As soon as the SIM is
inserted into handset, it becomes immediately programmed for use.
Therefore, it can be inserted into any handset. Typically, mobile
stations have transmitted power from 2 W to 1W depending upon the
cell size, If cell size is smaller, the transmitted power will be
less.
Home
Location Register (HLR)
The HLR in telecom is the
reference database for subscriber parameters. Various identification
numbers and addresses are stored, as well as authentication
parameters. This information is entered into the database by the
network provider when a new subscriber is added to the system.

The Basic Parameters stored in the
HLR in telecom are listed below:

Subscriber
ID (IMSI and MSISDN)

Current
Subscriber VLR (Current Location)

Supplementary
Services Subscriber to (Caller Tone, Missed Call Alert, Any Other
Services etc.)

Subscriber
Status (Registered or Deregistered)

Authentication
Key and AUC Functionality

Mobile Subscriber Roaming
Number

Visitor Location Register (VLR)
The VLR contains a copy of most of
the data stored at the HLR. It is, however, temporary data which
exists for only as long as the subscriber is “active” in the
particular area covered by the VLR.
The VLR database will therefore
contain some duplicate data as well as more precise data relevant to
the subscriber remaining within the VLR coverage (here coverage means
status of customer of last lac location area code updation )
The additional data stored in the
VLR in telecom is listed below:

Location
Area Identity (LAI).

Temporary
Mobile Subscriber Identity (TMSI).

Mobile
Station Roaming Number (MSRN).

Mobile status (busy/free/no
answer etc.).

Operation
and Support System
(OSS)
The
implementation of OMC is called the operation and support system
(OSS).The OSS is the functional entity from which the network
operator monitors and controls the system. The purpose of OSS is to
offer the customer cost-effective support for centralized, regional,
and local operational and maintenance activities that are required
for a GSM network. An important function of OSS is to provide a
network overview and support the maintenance activities of different
operation and maintenance organizations.
Authentication
Center (AUC)

Separate
AUC is defined to protect User ID and data transmission. A database
which contains the International Mobile Subscriber Identity (IMSI)
the Subscriber Authentication key (Ki), and the defined algorithms
for encryption.
Equipment
Identity Register (EIR)

A
database which contains information about the identity of mobile
equipment in order to prevent calls from stolen, unauthorized, or
defective mobile stations.
GSM
Services:

GSM
services are classified as either teleservices or data services.
Teleservices include standard mobile telephony and mobile-originated
traffic. Data services include computer to computer communication and
packet switched traffic. User services may be divided into three
major categories.
A. Telephone services:
These include emergency calling and facsimile. GSM also supports
Videotex and Teletex.
B. Bearer services or data
services: These are limited to layer 1,2 and 3 of the open
system interconnection (OSI) reference model. Supported services
include packet switched protocols and data rates from 300bps to 9.6
kbps. Data may be transmitted using transparent or non transparent
mode.
C. Supplementary ISDN
services: these are digital in nature and include call
diversion, closed user groups and caller identification, and are not
available in analog mobile networks. Supplementary services also
include short messaging service (SMS) which allows GSM subscribers
and base station to transmit alphanumeric pages of limited length
while simultaneously carrying normal voice traffic. SMS provides cell
broadcast also can be used for safety and advisory applications such
as the broadcast of highway or weather information to all GSM
subscribers.
Conclusion:
Thus,
we have studied and prepared the case study for GSM(Global
System for Mobile Communications).

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