Group 1 – Caillaud, Domingo, Saltorio, SamsonHRIM 106 – Written ReportETHICS IN TECHNOLOGYDefinitionTo introduce this report about ethics in technology, I will first define what is ethics and technology individually and then ethics in the technology. What is ethics? Ethics is the science of morals and mores.
It is a philosophical discipline that reflects on the purpose, the values ??of existence, the conditions of a happy life, the notion of “good” or questions about morals or mores. Ethics can also be defined as a reflection on the behaviours to adopt to make the world humanly habitable. In that way, ethics is searching for the ideal concept of a society and conduct of existence. Etymologically the word “ethical” is a synonym, of Greek origin of “morality”. It has, however, nowadays a less pejorative connotation than “moral” because it is more theoretical or philosophical. While morality is a set of rules or laws with a universal, irreducible, even eternal character, ethics is attached to values ??and is determined in a relative way in time and space, according to the community.
What is technology?The word technology, of Greek origin, is formed by tekne (“art, technique or office”) and by logos (“ensemble of knowledge”). It is used to designate the knowledge of making objects and modifying the environment in order to satisfy human needs. Technology is the set of theories, processes and methods through which it is possible to profit in a practical way from scientific knowledge. It should be pointed out that the word technology is sometimes used (albeit erroneously) as a synonym for information and communication technologies, which are those that allow information to be processed and transmitted by artificial means and that includes everything related to computers. Although it is not easy to draw a single diagram for different applications of technology, it should be mentioned that the manufacture of an innovative machine begins with the identification of a practical problem to be solved. Then, the necessary conditions to achieve the solution (hardware, costs, etc.) are established as well as the operating principle.
Then follows the design of the machine / apparatus, the construction of a prototype and the manufacture. Technology thus contains all this process, from the initial idea to the actual application.What is ethics in technology? Ethics in technology implies a very controversial question, “What is a good or bad practice in terms of ethics?” UNESCO has published, in 2007, a study called “ethical implication of emerging technologies”. When we talk about ethics in technology it refers to the private life, tolerance, fundamental value of freedom, equality, and sharing of responsibilities. Many technologies want to collect data and most of the time these data are private, more than that, when you apply to create an account on Facebook or Instagram you click everytime on “I agree on the terms and general conditions”. The result is that all the contents that you will publish (photos, videos, likes, shares) directly become part of the property of these companies.One would think, “Is it very ethical?” Technology has replaced many people at work, this is a fact, mostly in the third world countries, but not only there, for example in France you can’t order your meal in a fastfood restaurant at the counter, anymore. They have replace manpower by robotics.
“Is it the start of the road to dehumanisation?” One other big question about ethics in technology is ethics in medical and research. There is a new cloning technique, different types of modifications in term of genetics, which all need to be monitored by special surveillance. We can talk here about bioethics as something that paved the way for ethics in the medical industry.Samples :Security IssuesReading private mail of employees in an organizationMonitoring social media activity (Facebook, Twitter, or Instagram)Reading files saved on the computers of employees Capturing typed output through the use of keyboard captureIn fact, the companies can have the right to do this and other things by using the term security. We can think of it as being it’s ethical or not. But the thing is if they do this then they should inform their employees by making them sign a special contract about their right to privacy. Identity IssuesDriver licenseID number Social network password Mailbox password Credit card numberIn technology, there may very well be a times where, someone may be able to steal and individual’s identity.
It’s fraud, and the idea behind this is obtaining key pieces of personally identifiable information. The imposter uses one’s personal information against him, to gain access to the his existing account/s. The imposter would usually change the mailing address on the account and run up a huge bill (clothes, electronics etc.…) before he could realize the fraud. The Internet is the best place to be stolen. Why? because transactions can be made without any personal interaction. Autonomy IssuesMicrosoft ExcelHospitality software (Protel, Opera)Social networksThe Internet in generalDoes the technology make us autonomous? Is that ethical? that’s a fact : the technology takes now a huge part in our life and even at work we used technology during the day. It’s important to make a distinction between the technology we need and we don’t need and that point, define us as autonomous or not regarding the technology.
Fake NewsFake news, according to Cambridge Dictionary, are false stories that appear to be news, spread on the internet or using other media, usually created to influence political views or as a joke. It is written and published with the intent to mislead in order to damage an agency, entity, or person, and/or gain financially or politically, often using dishonest, or outright fabricated headlines to increase leadership, online sharing, and internet click revenue.Privacy IssuesPrivacy is defined as an individual condition characterized by exclusion from publicity. (Neetling et al., 1996, p.36) It is also the preservation of confidentiality of personal information from public view or access. With the ease with which technology can now handle database management, a lot of people are getting a false sense of security into uploading more personal and private information online. Cloud-based storage systems now hold photographs, documents, and a wide variety of data — a lot of them sensitive.
In ignorance, most players click their Privacy away. But is it entirely ethical for app development companies to bury this away in fine print without explaining the ramifications of a data breach, or what they actually do with the data? Lastly, the manner with which banking and money transfer applications are now being integrated across platforms is a cause for worry if policies and guidelines on ethics of use on both the administrator side and the customer side are not in place. It is now possible to send funds via Facebook Messenger. Cash cards can now be connected to ones SMS, phone app, and even Facebook account. The potential for misuse, such as money laundering and fraud, is big. It is happening today.TechnoethicsTechnoethics is defined as the study of moral, legal and social issues involving technology.
An example would be when we put up a lot of our personal information on the internet, this may be because of a number of reasons be it shopping, insurance, reservations, etc. Now imagine all that information to be available for literally anyone to see and even use. One such example would be Amazon.com’s Wish List feature, where one can build a list of things, be it books or other items of interest, which anyone can view which in turn jeopardizes an individual’s privacy.
The moral issue lies in the fact that this admired branding and well-established company, hasn’t done anything wrong. But the thing is, there is still this mass vulnerability that they need to be accounted for, they can’t just say sorry and pretend that it never happened because there would have already been actions taken using this available information that makes them liable for everything that has been done which is where the legal issue comes in. Added to that is despite them not doing anything inherently wrong, they are still providing a medium for people to do otherwise.
And as for the social issue, well, everyone is affected by this. Ordinary law-abiding people may get caught in something that they would have never thought could happen to them, there is this possibility that those who do bad may get away with it leaving the ones who didn’t do anything to be held responsible despite not knowing anything.Look at Wikipedia, it’s open to everyone and there is so much freedom with this that people can literally do anything with it. The legal and moral issues here lie within the context of the Wiki entries as there have been a lot reports dealing with “gross inaccuracies inserted by anonymous and occasionally malicious contributors.
” (Freedman, 2006) This has led to a number of actions, which included searching for who those who added false and inaccurate information in entries, a system wherein a ban would be set for people who continued to do so, plus an archived message of them vandalizing for all the world to see on their profiles were set up, etc. This, however, leads us to the social issue, which is the limiting of Wikipedia, in its mission of having an encyclopedia that supposedly open to everyone pitching in. We could take a look at this in terms of the implications there are for every move taken with the implementation of technology.
This is to ensure that there is no loophole or breach that people can take advantage of, which can be achieved by taking in more people when it comes to making the decisions moving forward. Another that we can look at is the inevitability of slipping up, leading to another ethical concern. There should be a backup for this, a preparation or prevention, if you will, to be able to rebuild as fast and as efficient and to handle all possible criticisms along the way. How to improve ethics in technology?Technological Revolutions A technological paradigm is a set of concepts, theories, and methods that characterize as a kind of technology. For example, a technological paradigm for an airplane, this includes the concept of a machine that flies, the theory of aerodynamics, and the method of using the surfaces to achieve and control the flight. A technological device is a specific piece of technology. It is the implementation of technological paradigm.
An example is The Wright brother’s airplane and commercial jetliners. Technological development is when either technological paradigm is elaborated in terms of improved concepts, theories, and methods or the instances of the paradigm are improved in terms of efficiency, effectiveness, safety, etc. One example of this technological revolution is computer/information revolution. In the pre-revolutionary stage, many concepts and devices were developed that lay the foundation for the revolution. Concepts from the development of mathematics to Alan Turing’s theoretical analysis of computing were crucial preparation for computing technology to develop. 3 Stages of Technological RevolutionThe Introduction Stage – it is where the earliest implementations of technology are esoteric, often regarded as intellectual curiosities or even as playthings more than as useful tools.
The Permeation Stage – It is where the technological devices are standardized. The devices are more conventional in design and operation. The number of users increases. The cost of application drops and the development of the technology begin to increase as the demand for its use increases.
The integration into society will be moderate, and its overall impact on the society becomes noticeable.The Power Stage – the final stage where the technology is firmly established, readily available, and can be leveraged by building upon existing technological structures. The integration in to society will be major, and impact will be significant.Better Ethics As the development of a technological revolution stage increases, the number of ethical issues arises. This is because the number of ethical issues tracks the development of a technological revolution.
In the introduction stage, there are few users that limit the use of technology. Ethical issues occur, but only fewer in number. During the permeation stage of a technological revolution, the number of users ad uses grows.
The technology is more integrated in the society, and therefore, more ethical issues should be expected. During the power stage, many people use the technology. Like said before, technology has a significant social impact that leads to increase the number of ethical issues. 3 Ways That Would Improve Our Ethical Approach to Technology First, we need to take into account that ethics is an ongoing and dynamic enterprise. When new technologies were developed, there is a commendable concern to do all ethics first.
Sometimes, placing a moratorium on a technological development is suggested. Both of these approaches are better than saving ethics until the end after the damage is done, but also, both have limitations. Because of the limitations of cognitive human systems, our ethical understanding of development technology will never be complete. Like the advice given to a driver in a foreign land, constant vigilance is the only sensible approach. The second improvement would be the establishment of better collaborations among ethicists, scientists, social scientists, and technologists. Ethicists need to be informed about the nature of the technology and to press for an empirical basis for what is and what is not a likely consequence of its development and use. Scientists and technologists need to confront considerations raised by ethicists and social scientists, considerations that may a?ect aspects of the next grant application or risky technological development.
The third improvement to make ethics better would be to develop more sophisticated ethical analyses. Ethical theories themselves are often simplistic and do not give much guidance to particular situations. Often the alternative is to do technological assessment in terms of cost/bene?t analysis. This approach too easily invites evaluation in terms of money while ignoring or discounting moral values which are di?cult to represent or translate into monetary terms. At the very least we need to do more to be more proactive and less reactive in doing ethics. We need to learn about the technology as it is developing and to project and assess possible consequences of its various applications. Only if we see the potential revolutions coming, will we be motivated and prepared to decide which technologies to adopt and how to use them.
Otherwise, we leave ourselves vulnerable to a tsunami of technological change.Effects in society We are currently living in what would be classified as the technological era. Technology plays a vital part in our everyday lives. What we do and how we do it are both highly influenced by the technology we have around us. We send messages to each other through our smartphones and computers. We contact friends, our workmates and bosses through email over the internet. We buy, sell, and advertise products using the internet.
The world around us revolves around technology, and it’s no coincidence that banks and other important institutions utilize technology, and most of the time are dependent on it. Technology makes our daily lives easier. That is one fact we cannot deny.
It is through technology that work in all sectors and all industries became more efficient. It is through technology that information and knowledge is always at our fingertips. Technology made all these and so much more possible. But, even with all these contributions the society, technology also has its negative impacts.
Ethical concerns in the field of technology are very prevalent nowadays. The amount of data, both personal and open-access, available online is rather alarming. What’s alarming about it is that everyone has access to it, and sometimes the person who has access to these type of information have bad intentions. For instance there is the problem of identity theft. This is done even through the most basic media, say for example facebook, twitter, instagram, or any other social media websites. With a just a few clicks of the button, someone can use your personal information for whatever use they want.
There is also the problem of data mining and hacking. This does not only affect an individual, but can also affect society as a whole. Hacking of secure institutions such as banks and government websites have a direct impact to our society. When the Bank of the Philippine Islands (BPI) encountered a system error, which can be mostly attributed to potential hacking or DDOS attacks, a lot of transactions within the Philippines was put into a halt. You can say that a certain portion of the society was paralyzed. Problems like this often make society question if people are going too far with the technological advancements.
That is why people are giving a lot of importance to security. Society has been investing in ways to make data and information online more secure. Either via encrypting the data servers, or by having 2, 3, or sometimes 4 step authentication on some social media websites. It is certainly important that as we develop and improve technology, people should become more responsible in using it.Effects in the industry Given what ethics is and its context in technology, we get a general idea of how and what could become of the hospitality industry if this is not monitored or given more importance.
As with any other industry out there, the hospitality industry is also susceptible to disorderly or unethical behaviors and conducts. This may be in the form of how a customer is treated, how things are within the hotel itself with the different offices and employees, possibly even stakeholders, which branches it out even further and it would, in turn, have a negative impact on the overall community itself. Now, technology plays a big role in this, and for the most part it does what its supposed to do, but we can’t account for the ones who use this for something bad or disorderly. Because literally almost anything can be hacked in this day and age. There are still ethical concerns when it comes to the use of technology, because it is us, humans, who use them and unlike tech or automated systems that don’t really have a concept of what right and wrong conduct is, it is again us, humans, that do; we have the freedom to do what we want with technology, and it is this control that may lead to problems ensuing.The hospitality industry has come a long way, with it having much better and more advancements in terms of technology. Nowadays, there is almost always going to be wi-fi in a hotel, because of it becoming more of a need than a want, and this goes for both the staff and the customers. The possible downside of a lot of people connected to a server, is that there is a chance that hacking might happen, or maybe identity theft, or even unwarranted monitoring.
Another concern, would be having a lot of stuff being automated, where even the possibility of having robots isn’t being questioned as much anymore. Applications in the smartphones used as one-time passes for everything in a hotel, like for payments, deliveries, reservations, serving as a key card for a room, plus giving criticisms or feedback. What if, let’s say the battery on your phone would die, how would you operate these systems then?This is, by all means, for the betterment of the hotels and the customers, for competition, for convenience, for enhancing guest experiences, you name it, but this kind of takes away the ‘human factor’ or the ‘human interaction’ which started it all in the first place and which can never be replaced by any form of technology, and added to this is that not everyone welcomes these changes, it’s going to be subjected to flaws, eventually, which may take a lot longer and may be more expensive to get it all back up and running again. Yes, technology is amazing, and yes, it has accelerated the growth of the industry by a ton, but we still need to take into account of the fact that this is entirely up to how we use this; it’s more of the correct use of technology and for purposes of helping further the industry and not degrading or tarnishing it.ReferencesCarter, B. (2017, March 22). How technology is changing the hotel industry and the impact on guest experience. Retrieved from https://www.
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