Alan and Karen
Truth and Reason
The paper will provide a definition of gravity, and give different bodies which have gravity. It will explain theories that govern and interpret gravity such as Aristotle theory, Isaac Newton and the general theory of relativity. The paper will also discuss how the gravity has evolved and explores researches done by different scientists and their reasoning used to explain about gravity properties and evolution. Different people tend to believe about different theories of gravity and the reason why they believe in one theory and failed to believe in the other. The conclusion will articulate the different evidence presented to show evolution of gravity.
According to Misner, Thorne, and Wheeler (2017), Gravity can be defined as a force by which bodies such as the planet can draw other objects towards their centers. It can also be defined as the force that helps to keep all the planets around the sun in their respective orbits. There are the different theories which have been formulated so that they explain the reason behind this force of gravity. It has been proven that anything which has mass also has the gravity. The force of gravity between two objects tends to weaken as the distance widens. Earth has a large mass hence it can produce a large gravitation pull of object towards its self.
The History of Gravity
People came to realize about gravity recently. The longtime philosophers thought that the stars and the planets are the god’s realm, and they tend to follow motion referred as natural motion. The idea of gravity was put forward by a Greek philosopher Aristotle who gave a comprehensive scientific explanation of gravity by putting forth the concepts of how object move toward their natural place. The idea was later developed around in 1500s when it was discovered that the planets were revolving around the sun by the astronomers like Brahe (Misner, Thorne, ; Wheeler, 2017). They came to ask themselves why the planets were moving in an elliptical orbit but not in a circular one. Later the force of gravity was discovered by Isaac Newton and its explanation and calculation developed by Einstein.
Aristotle and the force of gravity
Aristotle introduced philosophy about motion toward substance natural place. He stated that all bodies move toward their natural place. He justified himself by giving the argument that the bodies followed a certain movement which is repetitive in the sky. The view of Aristotle was that each body had a motion which was a routine is followed, and it was not affected by the external forces.
Isaac Newton, the person who discovered gravity
As discussed by Bynum, Browne, and Porter, (2014) Isaac Newton was a physicist who lived between the year 1642 to 1727. He discovered the force of gravity when he saw a falling mango, and he was thinking about the forces of nature. The case of falling mango made him realize that there must be the force acting on the bodies or objects at rest which makes them start to move. He also noted that the moon flies off away from earth. The motion of the moon was in a straight line, but it did not fall towards the surface of the earth. After the combination of all his observation of how the objects such as the mango falling and the movement of the sun, he concluded that there was a force acting upon them. Newton called this force of gravity, and he explained that the gravitational power occurs between all the objects. Newton argued that the force that the free-moving objects and the motion of the earth are determined by the same particular force which is the gravity.
Differences between Aristotle and Newton regarding the gravity
Aristotle concluded that for an object to be in the natural state it has to be at rest. This tries to show that when an object is in motion, it is not in its natural state, this makes people demand an explanation why the object is in motion and what is that which keeps it moving. On the other hand, Newton proposed that if an object is not in motion it will remain motionless and those objects which are in motion will always be moving. They will proceed with their motion in a constant line, and velocity remains constant if the force which is acting on the object is zero.
Aristotle believed in two different types of motion natural and violent movement. Natural motion, in this case, was the movement of objects upwards or downwards due to their weight. The violent motion is the motion that is come as a result of pulling or pushing an object. Newton, on the other hand, believed that any motion required force for it to occur.
. Aristotle way of thinking about moving objects moving towards their natural space makes less sense compared to Newton’s idea that things acted upon by a force move and those that are not acted do not move. Besides, Aristotle stated that heavier objects fall faster than lighter objects; this idea was disapproved by Galileo by dropping two balls with different masses. To support Galileo ideas, Newton Law of Gravitation showed that the acceleration of an object near the earth surface is always the same, to justify this Newton used the formula g = GM/ R2 = 9.80m/ s2.
There are different experiments which were carried out by the early philosophers to proof that the gravity existed. The following are the different experiments which were carried out to prove that that gravity existed. According to Hughes et al. (2017), Galileo experimented in the year 1589. His experiment involved different objects which were falling to the ground he did this when he was on a tower, and the different objects were hitting the ground at the same time. The time they were taking to reach the ground did not put to consider the weight of the experimentation objects
The laws of motion gave a clear picture of motion of an object when force is applied to the body. The concept of gravitation and laws gave new dimensions to physics. It cannot be to an experiment, but as an accident as sir Newton saw a mango fruit fall from the tree to the ground (Bahrami et al. 2015). This was what triggered his mind to do more research about that force which caused the fruit to fall. He started to experiment with other objects, and he observed the same behavior they were falling towards the surface of the earth. Newton made a comparison of the falling mango and the cannonball. The cannonball which might be moving at a higher speed and it continued to increase in speed. He concluded that the cannonball would eventually fall to the ground in a curved motion. If the speed is constant, the ball will never hit the ground, and this was the explanation which was given as to why the moon usually moves around the earth and the earth moves around the sun. The ideas presented by Isaac Newton was refereed as gravity theory and it provided answers to many questions and helped in scientific calculations’.
However, the theory which Newton formed did not explain why the objects were attracting each other but explained how they attracted each other. Isaac Newton description of the gravity was considered scientific law until Einstein introduced the General Theory of Relativity which showed that objects like planets and sun bend space-time or four-dimensional concepts in which things exists. The theory that was formulated by Einstein made the description of gravity as a mass warping time and space. The theory also describes how light bends upon passing the stars and other objects which are extremely massive.
Why people have different thoughts than others and less on the science behind gravity
People have different thoughts about the properties of gravity, but they do not understand the science behind gravity. The thoughts that differ among the people about gravity include; the strength of gravity it is weak others think it is strong. Why does gravity only pull objects and it does not repel object. Also, people tend to confer whether they need gravity except for the Plantae kingdom. Also, people will differ in their thoughts whether gravity can be controlled or not. Furthermore, most of the people have never understood what gravity is.
On the science of gravity, people are not aware of what to think about gravity. The scientific view requires a person to think more scientifically than in the normal way. This is why people do not have a lot of counteraction from the scientific point of view of gravity.
The study of gravity has been like a long endless process, it started a long time ago, and still, it is being done today. New properties of gravity are being discovered, and the old properties which are known are put in a well-organized manner where the researchers tap information for more research. The understanding of the gravity force gives a different property of the earth for example why the earth is round. The earth pulls objects towards itself all rounds. The only way in which gravity can be canceled is when an object is in orbit.
Bahrami, M., Bassi, A., McMillen, S., Paternostro, M., ; Ulbricht, H. (2015). Is Gravity Quantum?. arXiv preprint arXiv:1507.05733
Bynum, W. F., Browne, E. J., ; Porter, R. (Eds.). (2014). Dictionary of the History of Science. Princeton University Press
Hughes, B., Mona, L., Wilson, G., McAninch, S., Seamans, J., ; Stout, H. (2017). An object in motion: an integrative approach to accelerating students’ interest in Newton’s Laws of Motion. Technology and Engineering Teacher, 77(1), 10
Misner, C. W., Thorne, K. S., ; Wheeler, J. A. (2017). Gravitation. Princeton University Press