Global Food Security
Report Geography 2018
By the year 2050 Earths population is expected to increase to 9.6 billion, and by 2100 to have almost doubled to 12 billion. In 2016, the 17 Sustainable Development Goals of the 2030 agenda for sustainable development was adopted by world leaders. Over the next 15 years, they aim to end hunger, achieve food security, improve nutrition and promote sustainable agriculture. With a primary focus on the capacity of Australia’s crops to produce food for future generations and how other nations might emulate Australia’s progression, this research will outline goals for tackling these growing problems.
Crops and their locations
The tea plant is an evergreen shrub or small tree which produces leaves that many infuse and drink. Tea grows well between latitudes 42 º N and 33 º S and is grown in over 40 countries. the biggest producers are:
Tea is a very adaptable plant, growing in a broad range of conditions, up to 2km above sea level. Generally, it requires 100 inches of rain and thrives in 70-90 % humidity during growing seasons. The
best teas come from subtropical areas.
Coffee is popular drink produced from the beans of a tropical coffee plant which are roasted, ground and mixed with milk and water. Coffee is heavily grown between the tropics of Cancer and Capricorn. Approximately 70 countries grow coffee in the following locations:
As seen in the image, coffee grows well close to the equator where the climate averages 21º C. Coffee requires rich soil, sun and rain. Brazil produces the most coffee in the world due to its perfect growing conditions.
Wheat is the second most popular crop in the world (after rice). Its grains are ground into flour for bread, pasta and other foods. 90% of wheat exports come from:
The United States
It is mainly grown in the middle latitudes of the Northern hemisphere, from the
Source 1.4 equator to 60 º N. The plant cannot grow in continually hot, moist climates. There are four main types of wheat:
Hard red winter
Soft red winter
Most wheat only needs approximately 12-15 inches of water to grow successfully, with ideal temperatures of 21-24º C and low humidity.
Black Tea Production
All teas come from the camellia sinensis plant. Leaves are hand picked in spring (1st flush) and summer (2nd flush). The processing method determines taste, colour & scent, these being ‘orthodox’ (by hand) & ‘CTC’ (cut, tear, curl, by machine). Tea is grown in mass amounts in tea farms, the plant loves the low humidity but high rainfall which is common on the windward sides of hills. The plant is sold in many forms, these can include loose leaf and bagged. Tea is grown heavily in developing nations close to the equator because it is very cheap and provides a stable income for the nation. It is extremely popular all over the world and you can find it in almost every grocery store.
Wheat’s Global Capacity to Produce Food
Wheat provides approx. 20% of the world’s protein. Annual wheat
yields must rise from