Genetics For starters, you should understand exactly what

Genetics has always been an interesting concept for many people. Some common questions people ask are “Where did she get her hair color from? “or “How did he end up with blue eyes? “. It all started with someone’s curiosity and willingness to put the effort into figuring out the science behind it. The mix of different genes passed down from generation to generation are what make each and every one of us unique in our own way.
Understanding genetics can be a very complex topic. For starters, you should understand exactly what genetics are. “Genetics is the study of heredity, the process in which parents pass on genes onto their children.” This means that a child will inherit the biological parents’ genes that express unique traits. For example, their physical characteristics, genetic disorder, and natural talents. Understanding some of the science can help someone grasp the concept better.
Chromosomes are made from strands of DNA and DNA is made up of segments called genes. Each gene adds protein that builds, regulate, and maintain a persons’ body. Sperm and egg cells each contain 23 chromosomes. When the two cells are combined, the fetus gets half of the DNA from the father and half from the mother. Two of the 46 chromosomes determine the sex of the person. Females get two x-chromosomes from both parents and males get one y-chromosome from the father and one x-chromosome from the mother.
A persons’ genes come in different forms called alleles. Somatic cells have two alleles from each of the parent. It is often hard to determine which two genes are presented within the chromosome just based on the outward appearance. An allele that is hidden can be passed onto the offspring and presented in a later generation. For example, a great-grandfather could have had red hair and that trait did not present itself until three generations later.
Here are some fun facts that explain how a person gets certain traits. The eye color is a polygenic trait, meaning that the traits are controlled by more than one gene. The amount of brown pigment in the iris determines the eye color. Facial features are said to dominate and filtered down through the generations. Just taking a look through the old family photos someone might notice that there is a certain feature that is distinct in the family line. A persons’ fingerprint pattern is said to run in the family.
If anyone is curious about what their child’s height will be when they become an adult, they can simply use this calculation to get a rough guess. Take the average height of both parents and add two inches for males and subtract two inches for females. Again, it’s a rough estimate because genetics still play a big roll in what someone’s height would be. Nutrition and health of a child can affect how tall a child will grow up to be. Trying to determine the weight of someone is one of those things that cannot be predicted. It all falls on the family genes.
Normally a persons’ hair color will depend on the colors or pigments that both parents have in their hair and how they mix. Most of the time a child’s hair color will be a color in between both the parent hair color. Surprising hair colors can show when both parents have different hair colors. This happens when one parents’ recessive gene come through and mixes with another one from the other parent.
Identical twins have no genetic link they just happen by chance. On the other hand, fraternal twins are genetically influenced. The ovulation of more than one egg at a time is inherited. It is hard to determine how often this occurs due to the fact that there have been many complications. Even though twins grow in the fetus at the same time they can turn out to be so different when they are born. That goes back to the inability to determine the genes presented within the chromosome.
There are infinite possibilities about what a child might inherit when they are born. The traits passed down from generation to generation are what make every one unique in their own way. Genetics can be complex to understand but taking the time to research the subject can help someone better understand how they became who they are.


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