General buried New Delhi’s Cold War-era opposition

General 1.           PowersShifts: Changing Triangular Dynamics.       WhileChinese leaders and diplomats still chant the mantra of “peacefulrise,” their body language makes it clear that they expect everyone to getout of their way.

 Its long-term goals of establishing supremacy in Asia& global order are also contingent on having weaker and pliant states on itsperiphery1.It is as determined to change the monopole international order as theUnited States seeks to preserve it. These goals invariably pit China notonly against the United States and Japan, but also against India.  2.            Just as theChinese view the United States as a hegemonic power and accuse Washington ofpursuing a policy of containment, Indians accuse Beijing of using everyopportunity to contain India while publicly professing support forfriendly ties2. Publicproclamations of friendly ties have been overshadowed by unresolved territorialdisputes, large arms supplies to Pakistan, and patrols by Chinese nuclearsubmarines in the Bay of Bengal. 3.

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           Apprehensions about expansionist and hegemonicChina have buried New Delhi’s Cold War-era opposition to US forwardpresence, now viewed as “invaluablein balancing Chinese power and outreach”3.For its part, Washington strategy documents talk of India’s positive role as a”net security provider in the IndianOcean and beyond.” 4 4.           NonAlignment or Military Alliance.

       Although US- India relations have come a long way, there are still residualdifferences and doubts. India’s historic quest for strategic autonomy, itsself-identity as a great civilization, and great power ambitions have markedIndo-US relations as principally distinctive from wherein US is used to havinga dominant voice. Unlike Britain, Germany, and Japan of the 1950s,India is a rising, not receding, great power.5Entering into a military alliance with US is not only likely to have impact onIndia’s strategic autonomy; it is also likely to have a major impact in theregional power dynamics, including India’s relations with its neighbours.However, with Asia turning into coliseum of power play, Chinese’s expansionistmoves and increasing power differential between China and India, can Indiastill afford a Non- Alignment 2.0 or is it time for India to adaptpragmatically to realign its foreign policy to enter into a military alliancewith US to safeguard its national interests?  LiteratureReview 5.            InPenguin books publication Non Alignment 2.

0 by various authors, the scholarshave developed an informed debate about various challenges India confronts,both internal & external. The authors of the book have identified India’sneighbourhood as key priority in formulating grand strategy for the nation,attaching special emphasis to balancing relation with China and US.   The authors have also developed argumentstowards both ends, i.e, either to have or avoid having formal alliances. 6.

           In Palgrave Pivot publication “The US pivot andIndian Foreign Policy” Harish V Pant & Yogesh Joshi have explained Indo- USinterests in each other and evolving Asia’s balance of power. The authors alsoargued in the book that both India & the US require each other in Asia to counterChina, while also suggesting few options for Indian foreign policy. 7.            In RoutledgePublication “US-Indian Strategic Cooperation Into the 21st Century” on thecontrary to the above, authors laid more focus on the hurdles and havearticulated few conditions for possibility of military alliance between Indiaand the US.

 8.            In anotherRoutledge Publication, “Engaging India”, scholars have highlighted historicalbottlenecks, arguing that India has little to gain in endorsing a formalmilitary alliance with US. 9.           C Raja Mohan in India Research Press book”Impossible Allies” has also argued against possibility of a formal militaryalliance between India and the US. However, with increasing hegemony of Chinaand rise in its military prowess, the recommendations made by the author, needsto be re-analysed.   10.

         Identification of the Gaps.   Following gaps have been identified duringthe course of literature review: – (a)         Possible roles for India in complementing US pivotstrategy and likely impact on India.  (b)          What impactwill decision to enter a military alliance with US have on strategic autonomyof India? (c)           Impact onregional stability viz a military alliance between India and US. (d)         Relevance of military alliance concept in presentday scenario.

 ResearchProblem11.         Theabovementioned topic has following research problems:- (a)         What role India can play in US’s ‘Pivot’strategy, and what will be its impact on its relations with China?  (b)           Whatare India’s concerns and opportunities in aligning with US as a strategicmilitary partner and is it likely to have any impact on belligerence of China?  (c)          What impact will strategic military alliancehave on the regional stability of South Asia with special reference to impacton lndia’s relations with China?  (d)          Whatare the hurdles to strategic military alliance between India and the USA?  Statementof the Problem  12.         Theresearch will analyse the apprehensions and opportunities of Indo- US militaryalliance and its likely impact on primary Indian interests & regionalstability so as to recommend whether India should enter into a strategicmilitary alliance with US to counter the Chinese hegemony.

The aforementionedStatement of Problem has been derived from combining 2(b) and 2(c) researchproblems above.  Objectivesof the Study 13.         Theresearch would be based on descriptive and exploratory design and would takehelp of empirical data available on stated lndo-US strategic interests andconcerns.

The research will analyse the impact of military alliance on lndia’score interests and predict best course of action for India while deciding whether itshould enter into a strategic military alliance with the US.  14.        The specific objectives of the study are asfollows:- (a)         Evaluate the relevance of the militaryalliances in present day strategic scenario.

 (b)          Analyse concerns and opportunities for Indiain entering into a strategic military alliance with US to counter the Chinesehegemony and recommend suitable approach it should adopt to successfully pursueits national development goals and international interests. Hypothesis 15.          Indiashould reinvigorate its strategic relations with US without committing itselfinto strategic military alliance directed against China. The type of Hypothesisl have stated is Directional hypothesis.  ResearchMethodology 16.        Methodsof Data Collection- Primary. (a)         Questionnaire.

 (i)         Pilot Survey.                        A pilot questionnairewas sent to a          sample comprisingten student officers of DSSC, Wellington and two senior armed forces officers.                        (ii)        Final Survey. (aa)     Questionnaire.                    Afinal questionnaire comprising 14 questions based on Likert’s scale wasprepared. The questionnaire attached as Appendix C was fielded in ‘GoogleForms’. (ab)     Sample. A sample was selected of more than 150 officers fromall three services undergoing the Course at DSSC, Wellington and senior centraland state level administrative officers for noting the responses.

 (b)          Methods of Data Collection- Secondary. (i)           Owing to the distinctiveness of the topic,there is not much literature available. However, the secondary data wascollected from library, periodicals, research papers, seminar proceedings andarticles written by renowned researchers, military analysts and defencestrategic forums. (ii)            Information for this dissertation wasacquired from both documentary and non-documentary sources. The World Wide Webhad been the major source of information and was widely accessed for researchpapers, documents, reviews, articles and speeches. Data available from eminentresearch organisations, both governmental and private institutions has beenincluded and cited accordingly.  Chapterisation 17.         TheDissertation has been restricted to the opportunities and concerns emanatingout of potential strategic military alliance between India and the US and itsregional implications so as to suggest best possible course of action forIndia.

It has been covered under the following chapters:- (a)          Chapter I: Introduction and Methodology.This chapter would cover a brief introduction to the topic, literature review,research problem, statement of the problem, objective of the study, hypothesis,research methodology & chapterisation.  (b)          Chapter ll: Shadow of the Dragon-Dynamics of Indo-US Relations in the Current Transition of Power in Asia.

This part will trace the rise of belligerent China and analyse its impact on Indo-USrelations. This part would also highlight ambivalence of interests of both thecountries in balancing Chinese rise and potential opportunities of a strategicIndo- US military alliance. This part of the dissertation is exploratory innature.

 (c)          Chapter Ill: US’s ‘Pivot’ Strategy andPotential Indian Role in the New Power Dynamics.This part will critically analyse the contrasting requirements of both thecountries and highlight significant foreign policy and security challenges forIndia in opting for a strategic military alliance with US. This chapter also explainsthe regional impact of India’s overture towards US and possible militaryalliance. This part of the dissertation is exploratory in nature. (d)        Chapter IV: Non-Alignment2.0- New Imperatives for Defence Diplomacy. This chapter analyses therelevance of military alliances in the present global order potential oflndo-US military alliance.

This chapter will also bring out potential ofre-energised defence diplomacy in shaping strategic alliances suggesting thatNeo Non- Alignment is potentially best course of action for India. This part ofthedissertation is explanatory and deductive in nature. (e)        Chapter V: Data Analysis& Inferences. The tools of research, the questionnaire and surveyanalysis will be applied in this chapter to validate the hypothesis. (f)         Chapter VI: The WayAhead/ Conclusion. This part will make concrete recommendationscharting out future course of action for India.

This part of the dissertationis inductive in nature. 1 Mohan Malik , Sage Journals Volume:179 issue: 1, page(s): 46-57 2 Mohan Malik , Sage Journals Volume:179 issue: 1, page(s): 46-57.3 Ibid. 4 RobertGates; “America’s security role in the Asia–Pacific”; The IISSShangri-La Dialogue: 14th Asia Security Summit; 30 May 2009; available at url:http://www.

iiss.org/en/events/shangri%20la%20dialogue/archive/shangri-la-dialogue-2009-99ea/first-plenary-session-5080/dr-robert-gates-6609  5 Mohan Malik , Sage Journals Volume:179 issue: 1, page(s): 46-57. 

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