General infoThe EU relationswith neighbouring countries, including Ukraine, have been developed from thevery start and up to recent time in various formats, outlined by policies andstrategies of the EU some of the most important for Ukraine: the EuropeanNeighborhood Policy (ENP) and the Eastern Partnership (2009). Although theabovementioned initiatives prescribed various aspects of cooperation, includingsecurity, they could be described as somehow one-sided and regional to someextent. When the geopolitical and security situation around the EU changedsignificantly after the Russian aggression against Ukraine, the EU was urged todevelop a new comprehensive vision of its foreign and security policy and bringit to a higher global level.
That was reflected in the EU Global Strategy«Shared Vision, Common Action: A Stronger Europe» (EUGS) adopted in June 2016.The document determines which values the EU should identify abroad, what typeof interests it must protect, and which challenges appear outside, even awayfrom the EU.In addition to defence issues,the EU Global Strategies also concerns other security aspects, for example, thefight against illegal migration, climate change and environmental policy,energy security. The last one, might be linked to the plans of the EU toimplement the Southern Energy Corridor, which should become an alternative tothe Russian energy supplies to Europe, and which is threatened by the provokedby Russia sharp change of the security situation in the Black Sea region andconflicts in the South Caucasus.
Steps of the EUThe EU has begunrethinking the importance of independent ability to counter threats; the GlobalStrategy provides a strategic autonomy of the EU and raises security and defenceissues to a higher level of attention in the EU – at the level of the heads ofstate. Here are some steps have been taken to strengthen the security and defencedimension of the EU.The so-called EUSecurity and Defence Winter Package 2016 was adopted. It included: newpolitical goals and ambitions in the security and defence sphere – theImplementation Plan on Security and Defence12; newfinancial tools, described in the “European Defence Action Plan” 3; anda set of actions to implement the EU-NATO Joint Declaration.8Furthermore, the EUstrengthened its defence governance structure with the creation of the EUMilitary Planning Conduct and Capability Facility that is responsible for theEU military operations.
The EU Battlegroups provoked expert discussions on apossible creation of a so-called “defensive alliance”, but they still havelimited capacities and mainly peacekeeping functions. Since the EU does not intend to build its own army, cooperation betweenthe EU and NATO has been intensified as the Global Strategy prescribed it. Now, let us take a lookwhat place does Ukraine take in theGlobal Strategy, what are its capabilities and contribution to theimplementation of the EUGS.Evaluation and the EU Global Strategy from thestandpoint of UkraineIn the Foreword to the Global Strategy, the EU HighRepresentative Federica Mogherini said: “Our wider region has become moreunstable and more insecure”. In addition to that, the Head of the EUDelegation to Ukraine, Ambassador Hugues Mingarelli, noted that the Strategy makes a clear focus on the Eastern Neighbourhood,as instability in the neighbouring countries means uncertainty in the EU. TheStrategy states: “To the east, the European security order has beenviolated”.4 That is why the EU Global Strategy providesa new vision from Brussels, which represents consolidated efforts of thepro-European forces to protect the common future of Europe.
According tothe President of the Centre for Global Studies “Strategy XXI”Mykhailo Gonchar, the EU Global Strategy should make the foreign and securitypolicy of the European Union stronger and more effective. That makes EU’s and Ukraine’s problems similar, asboth Ukraine and the EU want stability, peace and peaceful coexistence.Despite the fact that the main format of theEU-Ukraine relations is the Association Agreement and we feel a lack of information about the EU Global Strategy in Ukraineand its impact on cooperation between the EU and Ukraine, it offers severalinteresting and important projects and opportunities. References to Ukraine in theGlobal StrategyFewreferences of Ukraine in the EU Global Strategy, in comparison to countries inthe Middle East region indicates that the EU does not consider Ukraine as athreat but as a partner in maintaining a secure environment in Eastern Europe.The Strategy for the EU Foreign and Security Policy contains an important area- to “work with core partners, like-minded countries and regionalgroupings.” By this criterion, Ukraine is an important partner of the EUin the East. Ukraine is referred not in the section “An Integrated Approach toConflicts and Crises”, but namely in the section “European Security”,in the context of countering Russian aggression, thus confirming its pivotalimportance to the EU security and defining prospects of such dimension ofcooperation.The GlobalStrategy says: “Russia’s violation of international law and the destabilizationof Ukraine, on top of protracted conflicts in the wider Black Sea region, havechallenged the European security order at its core”, what means that thesecurity of both Ukraine and the EU are closely interrelated.
That is whyH.Mingarelli stresses that the sanctions against Russia are a demonstration ofcontinuity of realization of the EU values in the foreign dimension.Thus, thebest contribution to the European security is that the Ukrainian army detersRussian aggression in the East. Therefore, the level of Ukraine’s integrationinto the EU Common Foreign and Security Policy is very important. Even thoughthere still is a way to go, Ukrainian experts estimate the integration of theEU and Ukraine mostly positively; in any case, it corresponds with actualpossibilities of both sides. Prospectsof the EU-Ukraine cooperation in the foreign and security policyAn actualpartnership approach to further development of cooperation between the EU andUkraine in the foreign and security policy shows that it should be a mutualprocess. This cooperation can be divided into three directions.
The EU-Ukraine cooperation in international andregional dimensions for common security.Defence cooperation between the EU and Ukraine is frequently focused oncountering Russian aggression, what is natural and vital at this point, but,according to H.Shelest, if aggression of the RF remains the only base for thiscooperation, it would not become long-term and comprehensive. The idea of the”EU defensive alliance” and the potential prospect for Ukraine to join it mightbe a more long-lasting motivation. One of the considered components of the “EU defence alliance”concept is development of joint defence industry; Ukraine could become acontributor to it. The worth of Ukraine’s potential contribution is based onpractical developments during more than three years of war against the Russianforces and the backed by Russia separatist groups in the east of Ukraine, aswell as the Ukrainian existing defence industrial base in various sectors -from air-building and ship-building to the latest technical innovations forreconnaissance, command and fire control.
Ukraine can share with the EU the best practices ofearly detection of preparation and conducting of Russia’s information andpropaganda actions and identification of effective countermeasures. In abroader sense of strategic communications, Ukraine could provide experience ofmaintaining the unity of the country and neutralizing attempts of the foreignaggressor to turn the state into a boiler of mass protests, social riots, localpower clashes, internal confrontations, and especially problems of about 1.8mln. IDPs. The EU assistance in strengthening stability andsecurity of Ukraine; Ukraine’s contribution to security in Europe.The priority focus in the context of the EUassistance, to which Brussels must pay attention, should be involvement ofUkraine to processes of preparation of the EU policies in different sphereswith its right of an advisory voice, which, by the way, is provided by theAssociation Agreement.
Such a move by the EU would enhance responsibility ofthe Ukrainian authorities for the European future of the state and assist Ukraine’sintegration into the EU political decision-making system.Ukraine itself, requires extensive intellectual debateand understanding of opportunities of the EU Global Strategy to have a commonhorizon of a broad vision of the joint EU-Ukraine future and identify specificmechanisms for effective interaction. As Ukraine has already achieved many ofthe goals of the Eastern Partnership: the Association Agreement, the DCFTA andprocesses of sectoral integration are going, the EU and Ukraine should determinethe next horizon that would go beyond the currently existing documents. This will facilitate determination of the joint futureand give an answer for the painful question “What is next?” in theconditions of reluctance of Brussels to put a possibility of the EU membershipfor Ukraine on the agenda.It should be noted that only 28per cent of Ukrainian experts marked that prospects of Ukraine’s EU membershipwere real. Mechanisms like the Global Strategy and the Eastern Partnershipallow Ukraine to use the instruments and resources of the EU for reform withinthe state to make it more stable and secure that will result in a significantcontribution to the European security.The EU-Ukraine cooperation can develop both in largescale and within individual initiatives.
The EU Global Strategy provides opportunities todevelop proactive cooperation, for example, between the Visegrad Group andUkraine or the entire Black Sea region. A good example of such cooperation isthe planned participation of Ukraine in the Visegrad Battlegroup in 2019. Trivia Therefore,in the context of further implementation of the EU Global Strategy and the roleand contribution of Ukraine into it, the following recommendations can beformulated:1. Ukraine has to consistently support the EU policiesand values and become a leader of the European integration in the EasternPartnership.2. The mandate of theEU Advisory Mission Ukraine should be extended and include wider issues.
3. Together with Ukraine, the EU should clearly definegoals of further relations, which might be – partnership relations on the modelof Switzerland and Norway in the medium term period; in the long time – thepossibility of membership in the EU.4.
Capabilities of the EU Battlegroups should bestrengthened for real rapid response.5. Attention to the Black Sea region with a key focus onreducing its militarization and keeping balance of forces.
Security cooperation betweenthe EU and UkraineAs to theprospective spheres of security cooperation between the EU and Ukraine, our expertsconsider: energysecurity (17,5 per cent) and information security (16,2 per cent) as the verypriority directions of foreign and security cooperation between the EU andUkraine. Second group of priorities includes: military interaction andparticipation in the EU operations (12,5 per cent); countering illegalmigration (10 per cent); cyber security (8,7 per cent); countering hybridaggression (7,5 per cent). The third important group includes: security sectorreforms (5 per cent); military and technical cooperation (5 per cent);countering terrorism (5 per cent).It is worth mentioning in detail, how importantit is to involve the EU into the reforming of the civil security sector ofUkraine, as a part of the implementation process of the EU Global Strategy.For example, the EU Advisory Mission Ukraine –aims to assist reforms in the civil security sector, it works all around thecountry. More than 2.5 m.
, Euro have been invested into EUAM backed activities,it became a practical demonstration how the EU Global Strategy is implementedin Ukraine. In this context, it is important to continue functioning and evenexpand activities of the EU Advisory Mission with the final goal to cover allareas of the Ukraine and social security: critical infrastructure protection,information security, human security in the conflict area, countering illegalimmigration and terrorism, civilian control over the security sector. Although active cooperation between NATO andUkraine are developing in some areas, but only the EU can make an effectivenon-military contribution. The EUAM should further be expanded on the militarycomponent of the national security, initially focusing on training of units,which would be able to perform tasks in the EU Battlegroups and militaryoperations.A majority of Ukrainian experts consider thatthe EU Global Strategy gives Ukraine a substantial field for cooperation. Thus,the EU and Ukraine can become real partners in the dimension of the foreign andsecurity policy.AdditionalAccording toH.
Mingarelli, concerning Eastern Europe and the Black Sea region, the EUfocuses on the following areas: strengthening institutions and propergovernance; stability of all Eastern partners; enhancing economic developmentand market opportunities; development of closer intergovernmental relations;people-to-people contacts.However, a great majority of the Ukrainianexperts evaluated the attention of the EU to the Black Sea region as insufficient;the Strategy takes into consideration only few interests of that region. TheBlack Sea region, according to H.Shelest, found itself out of the Global Strategy;it was mentioned only in the context of sovereignty and territorial integrityof some countries and not even considered as the single region. This issue was also discussed at the roundtable “The EU Global Strategy: Place, Role and Contribution ofUkraine” and it causes deep concerns as to the destiny of that region.Conclusion Iwould like to sum up with the remarks by President Donald Tusk after the 5thEastern Partnership summit reconfirm that the tools to fulfil its opportunitieslie in the hands of Ukraine: “There should be no doubt that our common futurelies in the EU’s readiness to open up EU policies for our partners. I canreconfirm that we are ready to do that.
It is also the sovereign right of eachof our European neighbours from the East to choose the level of ambition, andthe goals they aspire to, in their relations with the EU.”I am convinced, that Ukraine is the undisputed leaderin contribution to the security of Europe and security cooperation with the EU.Among the countries of the Eastern Partnership, a progress of Ukraine in theEuropean integration will allow the EU to talk about a success of the EasternPartnership, the European Neighbourhood Policy and the EU Global Strategy inthe East. Therefore, the EU should give priority to European reforms in Ukraineand provide it with appropriate assistance to speed up, not membership yet, butits integration into the EU on all issues identified by the Global Strategy. the region.51 https://eeas.europa.eu/headquarters/headquarters- homepage_en/16693/EU%20Security%20and%20Defence%20package2 https://eeas.europa.eu/sites/eeas/files/eugs_implementation_plan_st14392.en16_0.pdf3https://eeas.europa.eu/sites/eeas/files/com_2016_950_f1_commumcation_from_commission_to_mst_en_v5_p1_869631.pdf4 http://eeas.europa.eu/archives/docs/top_stories/pdf/eugs_review_web.pdf5 Prepared on the results of theinternational round-table “EU Global Strategy: place, role andcontribution of Ukraine” (April 24, 2017, Kyiv) and the survey ofUkrainian experts in April 2017.