Gas turbine engines get their power from fuel burned in a combustion chamber and using the speed of the fast flowing combustion gases to drive the turbine in the same way as the high- pressure steam drives a steam turbine.The only difference though is that the gas turbine possesses a second turbine that acts as an air compressor seated on the same shaft. The compressor draws in the air, compresses it and sends it at a high pressure to the combustion chamber which increases the burning flame’s intensity.
As the gas turbine picks up speed, the compressor speeds up as well, which forces more air through the combustion chamber and that leads to the increase of the burn rate of the fuel, sending more high-pressure hot gases into the gas turbine increasing its speed even more. We can prevent this unexpected runaway by controlling the fuel supply line which limits the amount of fuel fed to the turbine thus limiting its speed.The gas turbine has 4 principal components :- The filtration system: It filters what goes into the turbine and removes unwanted particles.- The compressor: It draws in air and compresses it.
– The combustion chamber: a chamber in which fuel gets pumped in and ignites to burn with compressed air.- The turbine: It is where hot gases get converted to operate, it drives the compressor and the external loads.Before the beginning of processing, petroleum has a content of solid contaminants that reach up to 1.5 % and water content that reaches up to 0.3 %. A Part of the insoluble contaminants and water are removed from petroleum by being left to stand which is referred to as sedimentation. The process of sedimentation covers storing petroleum in storage tanks for a certain amount of time, during which the solids and a quantity of its water content migrate to the bottom of the tank, while the solids dissolve in the water, wish forms a brine, also called salted water.
This brine is unfortunately hard to remove.There are various methods that help to remove the emulsion formed, and we can categorize them into three groups 6 :- Mechanical methods: They involve sedimentation, filtration of fresh emulsions and centrifugation. – Chemical methods: They involve the use of de-emulsifiers, which dissolve the adsorption film at the water interface. – Electrical methods: They involve the use of electrohydrators.