Gamma group members: Aaron, Frank, Cindy, Suay Due date: February firstImmune systemAnaphylaxis / AIDSRQ from document: What are the organ systems of the human body and what happens when they go wrong?Research/random notes:An organ is a group of tissues in a living organism that has a specific form and function. Immune System:It is made up of a network of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to protect the body.The purpose:The purpose of the immune system is to keep infectious microorganisms, such as certain bacteria, viruses, and fungi, out of the body, and to destroy any infectious microorganisms that attack the body.
Function/how it defends:Through a series of steps called the immune response, the immune system attacks organisms and substances that invade body systems and cause disease.The immune system consists of special cells, proteins, tissues, and organs that guards its body against germs and microorganisms. In most cases, the immune system does a great job of keeping people healthy and preventing infections. But sometimes problems with the immune system can lead to illness and infection (for example HIV).White blood cells:Their main role is defense against diseaseThey have a big nucleusThey gobble up unwelcome micro-organismsThey produce antibodies to fight bacteriaThey produce antitoxins to neutralize the toxins produced by bacteriaThe immune system consists of:Bone marrowBone marrow is a sponge-like tissue in the bone and most defense cells are produced here. They then migrate to mainstream blood and joined with other tissues and organs.
Thymus glandThymus gland plays a main role in training and developing t-lymphocytes which is a subtype of white blood cell. It also plays a huge role on preventing from potentially pathogens such as fungi, bacteria and etc.tonsils/adenoidsThey play the body’s first line of defence from potential viruses as part of the immune system. Though they sometimes get infected as well.Spleen The spleen is in the upper far left part of the abdomen, protected by the rib cage. The spleen plays several important roles as part of the immune system.
It primarily acts as a filter for the old blood, white blood cells and platelets are also stored in as well.Lymph glandsLymph glands are small, bean shaped nods throughout our body, it filters foreign particles, cancer cells and etc, which are then destroyed by the special white cells called lymphocytes.The three ways White blood cells attack Microbes:They eat (Engulf) Microbes.
They gobble up microbes which sorts them out properly.They produce Antibodies. Antibodies make microbes to clump together and neutralise.They Neutralise the poisons or toxins that are created from microbesHow it works (Kind of simplified)(https://www.
youtube.com/watch?v=zQGOcOUBi6s)The immune system does nothing because the bacteria cannot be detected until the bacteria reaches a certain population and start to attack. When the bacteria starts to attack, a cell called a macrophage (the guard cell). They are very big.
HIV AND AIDS HIV is the virus that can cause AIDS. HIV can be found in blood of an infected person, men’s semen or vaginal discharge. It is transmitted by sexual contact with an HIV infected person, by using a syringe with an HIV-positive drug addict or by transfusing infected blood or blood clotting factors. There are Humoral immunity and Cellular immunity in Immune system. If a person’s Immune function weakens, it could be unprotected from Pathogen or common germs.
This could be one of the examples of AIDS.According to (“HIV/AIDS.” World Health Organization. Accessed January 24, 2018.) more than 70 million people have been infected with the HIV virus and about 35 million people have died of HIV. Globally,36.7 million 30.8–42.9 million people were living with HIV at the end of 2016.HIV:HIV is the virus you get before it becomes aids AIDS:Aids are the effects caused by HIV or a syndrome, it is not a virus/infection.People who have AIDS have weakened immune system which they are unable to fight off many infections.People who have AIDS tend to keep getting sicker, especially if they are not taking antiviral medications properly.When a person’s immune system is overwhelmed by AIDS, he or she might notice:extreme weakness or fatiguerapid weight lossfrequent fevers that last for several weeks with no explanationheavy sweating at nightswollen lymph glandsminor infections that cause skin rashes and mouth, genital, and anal soreswhite spots in the mouth or throatchronic diarrheaa cough that won’t go awaytrouble remembering thingsin girls, severe vaginal yeast infections that don’t respond to usual treatment