Job satisfaction has a link on individual’s characteristics where there are employees who are satisfied by the job than others. This contentment results from an appraisal of what someone does in contentment, with great influence of factors such as payments, promotions at work, class relations and the job that one does (Murray R. Barrick 173).
There are models that relate to job satisfaction, which include, situation model that was comprised of the job features due to the similarities in individuals needs. Disposition model, which argues that individual traits relates to the job satisfaction while interaction model considers the environment that one is, happen to influence the job satisfaction. Personal traits have a substantial connection with job satisfaction. In relation to gender, there is no much difference on contentment.
High level of education decreases the level of satisfaction especially, when there are no extrinsic remunerations. Age differences have considerable influence on job contentment, due to the change in an individual’s needs and technology while, at the same time, job level has its part to play too. Personality differences play a highly significant role on job satisfaction. Self-efficacy on an individual’s beliefs affects the contentment either to be high or low while the proactive, leads into taking action in advance and ability to persevere until the attainment of best results. Affectivity, which is either positive or negative, leads to high or low satisfaction respectively.
Other factors, which also have, a role in job satisfaction include openness, extraversion among others. Research, was done in Republic of Czech on job satisfactions to evaluate how individual’s traits, disposition factors and the state of affairs do affect the same. Methods used include participation, taking of measures on surveys, self-efficacy evaluation and focusing on personality dimensions in the study. In the compiled results, gender does not have a notable difference on job satisfaction but age difference had an impact on contentment. On education level, the results concluded that depending on which level one is, the satisfaction is directly related. On the other hand, job level either high or low also affects the satisfaction at work and the ownership of the company ant its size. In addition, individual’s correlates have an enormous impact on the contentment such as the agreeableness and extraversion.
There were similarities in this study with those conducted in USA. However, there was also some dissimilarity, due to cultural diversities. Personal variables do affect the ones job satisfaction in reference to the study conducted in Republic of Czech.
In this study, age, education level, gender, companies’ size, personality model and the individual’s self-efficacy were considerations. Different factors influence the contentment that includes working environment, salaries, personal rapport with his supervisors, the nature of job and the social class at work (Murray R. Barrick 174). Employee commitments and the motivations that in many cases lead to positive achievements in any organization do influence job satisfaction. Individual’s evaluation that leads to emotional reaction to work is the key measure to job satisfaction. Situation model plays a crucial role in job satisfaction. Individuals have needs, which are common; therefore, they tend to have similar characteristics in reference to job satisfaction. However, there are other models such a dispositional model, which has its stake on job satisfaction and it base its argument different personal attributes which do affect the same.
Interaction model takes a different route based, not on the individual’s characteristics but the relationship between a person and his environment. There is considerable focus based on the link between individual’s relationships and his correspondence job satisfaction. In relation to sexes and the effects caused no report on any significant variation in job satisfaction. Education level affects the satisfaction in essence that, the higher the level, the lower the contentment. Age factor happens to a greater relationship than the above two factors. The relationship is linear which is positively associated with job satisfaction. This happens when there is a transformation in needs and cognitive organization. At the same time, the relationship was also curvilinear.
In this relationship, the individuals who aged 40 and above, found themselves been less contented with what they do. The young are more satisfied as opposed to US study where they were less satisfied (Murray R. Barrick 185). In relation to this culture, differences present a significant role in age and job satisfaction. Individual’s job level is at the same time is a significant factor, which contributes to job satisfaction depending on ones rank, where those who are highly ranked are more, satisfied. Differences in personalities have their parts to play, also, personal affectivity and the personality model that focuses on aspects such as openness and extraversion. The research done in the Czech Republic had three objectives namely; the examination of personal characteristics, disposition factors, self-efficacy and the situation characteristics on their effects on job satisfaction (Murray R. Barrick 240).
Methods used to attain the results included; participation through taking of samples, assessment through survey, examination of self-efficacy and putting into considerations of factors in personality model. After the analysis of the data collected, there was insignificant difference in gender in terms of job satisfaction while on the age difference, a linear drop with age. Education level, job level, personality correlates and companies size possessions have their stake in job satisfaction. This research was to compare it results with others done on USA, as well as UK. In relation to USA, there was to have some similarities in the results observed. There was some dissimilarity reported where in UK the relationship between age and the contentment at work took a u-shape.
The research study in this article was in Kuwait, to explore the effect of gender and organization loyalty on commitment in relation to job satisfaction. There was no significant variation found on different roles in gender and job satisfaction. However, sexual differences results in having some attention observed such as work values. Thus, the study prime focus was to determine if Kuwaiti women are satisfied in their job areas just as their men, while at the same time, focus on the gender influence on the organization loyalty. Some of the studies conducted, concluded in their results by pointing the fact that there were no considerable correlation of difference sexes and job contentment. However, women felt at one point being discriminated at the work place, on the other hand, they felt satisfied. At the same time, gender does not have any outstanding influence on organization commitment. In this study, random sampling method helped in collection of the data.
Gender participation being almost the same, where results indicated the percentage being 49 and 51, female to males respectively. A scale to measure the job satisfaction was used, which raged from 1 to 7, where an individual would strongly agreeing or disagreeing. This attained an internal consistency of 0.80. Organization commitment was on scaling of 1 to 5 where an internal coefficient of 0.
85 attained on scaling. In the analysis of the data, some aspects such as the standard deviation and the mean were examined as well as use of a t-test assessment of mean on the gender was conducted. There is no clear indication of gender playing any insignificant role in relation to job satisfaction nor does it have effect on organization structure. Therefore, Job satisfaction has a direct link with an individual’s expectations. For that reason, emotional state of an individual plays a hugely significant role in job satisfaction. Job satisfaction is the main topic in the three articles, where evaluation of different factors examined; do create high or low job satisfaction.
In these articles, some similarities were achieved by the results after the analysis of the studies while there are also dissimilarities reported. In the first and the second article, the focus is the same, based on the relationship between job satisfactions and the individual traits. On the other hand, the third article is too specific on the role, which gender plays not only on job satisfaction but also on organization commitment.
There were similar results attained in all the articles where gender held no significant effect in relation to job satisfaction. Focusing on the first and second articles, relationship is found on where the studies were carried –Czech Republic. The reason behind these studies was to show comparisons with the previous studies, which had been in USA and UK, while the third article the study was in Kuwait. Age difference in the first two articles had a small effect on job satisfaction, while education level had a significant effect that was not all said to be linear. Examination of job levels, organization size, companies’ ownership, personality relationship and self-efficacy in the first two articles, in their effects on job satisfaction. This was not the case in the third article (Murray R.
Barrick 342). Similar methodologies in the first articles, which were inclusive of the participation, measures such as the self-efficacy, personality models that were not used in the third article, but in the third article, scaling was used. In conclusion, job satisfaction is a vital concern, which cannot be under or overlooked.
Murray R. Barrick, Ann Marie Ryan.
Personality and work: Oxford: Blackwell, 2003.