EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS ON REFRIGERATION SYSTEM USING CNT, GOLD & HAUCL4 NANO FLUIDSaDr.S.Sundararaj, bK.Mohan, cR.Nelson, dD.
Deepan Babu and eS.ThiyaguabcdeDepartment of Mechanical Engineering, Sri Krishna College of Technology, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India.ABSTRACT:In this paper the experimental analysis on performance of a Vapour Compression Refrigeration System (VCRS) with Nano fluids is done. Nano fluids are a new class of fluids which have solid particles of 1-100 nm suspended in them. Nano-fluids along conventional heat transfer fluids will have higher thermal conductivity. In this paper nano fluids with CNT and HAuCl4 is suspended with conventional lubricant (Polyalkylene Glycol) and the COP (Coefficient of Performance) is obtained, the amount of nanoparticles has been used in 0.1% & 0.2% vol.
fraction of PAG. The COP of VCRS with CNT, Gold & HAuCl4 is calculated. The addition of Nano particles to the refrigerant results in improvements in the thermo-physical properties and heat transfer characteristics of the system, thereby improving the performance of the refrigeration system.Key words: Coefficient of Performance; Vapour (COP), Compression Refrigeration System (CRS), Refrigerant; Nano fluids;INTRODUCTIONThe refrigeration system is almost found in many parts of the world for various purposes such as food preservation, cooling system etc.
The refrigeration system consumes a considerable amount of power. The performance of the refrigeration system depends upon the heat transfer capacity of the refrigerant. Normally R12, R22, R600, R600a and 134a are used as a refrigerant 1. For example, the average power consumption of one-ton air-conditioner is about 3000KW per year and for refrigerator it is about 1500KW per year 2. Nano fluid is used as a heat transfer fluid to improve the performance of the refrigeration system, one way of improving the coefficient of performance of the system is to increase the thermal conductivity of the refrigerant. The thermal conductivity of the fluid increases with increase in concentration of Nano particles.
13. With the use of nanoparticles in refrigerant or lubricant, consumption of power reduces and freezing capacity of the system increases in almost all cases. 3 With the help of Nano fluids the following results will occur? Increase in surface area which results in more heat transfer? The clogging of the particle can be reduced? By varying the proportions of the Nano fluids the thermal conductivity can be varied.a) Variable Compression Refrigeration systemThe process of moving the heat from one place to other with in a controlled condition is called as refrigeration. And moreover a reduction in the power consumption (10.87% & 13.
04%) along with faster cooling (from 410C – 250C) is also achieved when nano-refrigerants are used. 6 The input to the system is given in the form of mechanical energy through motor to compressor. Nano particles (CNT, HAuCl4, and Poly Alkaline Glycol) are added to the base fluids (water, ethylene, glycol and oil) they form a new form of fluids with improved thermal properties.b) Properties of refrigerant and Nano particlesR-134a-Tetrafluoroethane (bt-260C, ?-4.
2kg/m3), CNT (k-3500 Wm-1K-1, ?-2.3g/cm3), HAuCl4 (H – 0.3%, Au – 57.
9%, Cl – 41.8%, k-315 W m-1K-1, ?-3.5 g/cm3), and poly alkaline (? -1600 kg/m3, flash point-497 K and pour point-228 K).
MATERIALS AND METHODSa) Experimental MethodThe experimental set up consists of a compressor, condenser, and expansion Device and an evaporator section here the Capillary tube is used as an expansion device. The evaporator is coil type which is loaded with water. Service ports are provided at the inlet of expansion device and compressor for charging the refrigerant. The mass flow rate is measured with the help of flow meter fitted in the line between expansion device and drier unit. The exergy analysis can be done for various components• specific exergy e = ?h – T ?s• Condenser exergy (?E) =(ec x m – (1- (T/T0) )?hc x m)• Evaporator exergy (?E) = ((1-(T/T0) ?he x m – ee x m )• Capillary Tube exergy (?E) = ?s x m• Compressor exergy (?E) = ?s x mFig.
1. Experimental setup of VCRSb) SpecificationTable I. Specification of experimental set upS.NoComponentsSpecificationsQuantity(%Vol.fraction)1 Compressor 220v 12 Condenser 13 Evaporator 14 CapillaryTube0.5-2.
28mmdiameter15 Pressuregauge0-100psi46 TemperatureSensorup to573 K47 Refrigerant R134a -8 Nanoparticle 20-60nm(0.1&0.2)9 HauCl4(Gold Nanofluid)10ml (0.1&0.
2)10 GOLD 10ml (0.1&0.2)11 Energy meter 240v 112 Poly AlkalineGlycol250ml -c) Preparation of Nano fluidsIt involves two steps in first step the Nanoparticles are produced as dry powder and in thenext step they are dispersed in a base fluid likewater. The Nano fluid will be prepared using aprobe sonicator. The refrigeration system usingNano-fluids from their result the COP ofrefrigeration system with various Nano-fluids havegreat improvements. 12Fig.
2. Probe SonicatorIt uses ultrasonic vibrations to suspend the Nanoparticles (CNT, Gold and HAuCl4) in the fractionof 0.1% & 0.2% volume with base lubricant. TheNano fluids increases COP but their applicationsare hindered due to factors like long term stability,high pressure drop, high pumping power etc. 16Fig. 3.
Before and after sonicationd) Type and Percentage of nano particle andinput Parameters of VCRSThe experiment will be carried out withNano lubricant in 0.1 and 0.2% vol. fraction.Table II. Volume fraction and quantity of nanoparticlesS.no Type ofNanoparticle%Vol.fraction Quantity1 Gold 0.
1 0.25 ml2 Gold 0.2 0.5 ml3 HAuCl4 0.1 0.
25m4 HAuCl4 0.2 0.5 ml5 CNT 0.
005 25 mgThe input parameters measured from the VCRTable III. Input parameter from VCRSS.no Parameters Range1 Power input 622 W2 Evaporator temperaturerange-15 to 15 0C3 Voltage range 200 to 250V4 Motor type CSIR5 Liquid temperature 450C6 Compressor cooling FanRESULTS AND DISCUSSIONa) Time taken to cool water from 250C to 40CThe below figure shows that the time taken tothe conventional lubricant is higher than the Nanolubricants. It is also found that the time taken isminimum for 0.
2% Gold + CNT with Lubricant.Fig. 4. Cooling Vs Concentration of Nanoparticlesin LubricantThe above figure shows that the time taken tothe conventional lubricant is higher than the Nanolubricants. It is also found that the time taken isminimum for 0.2% Gold + CNT with Lubricant.b) Theoretical and Actual COPFig. 5.
COP Vs Concentration of NanoparticleFigure 5 shows that the actual COP is lesser thanthe theoretical COP also the actual COP is higherfor 0.1%gold + CNT when compared to the othernano particles.c) Water temperature vsActual COPFig.6. Water temperature vs & HAuCl4Figure 6 shows that the actual COP ismaximum for 0.1%HAuCl4, whereas0.2%HAuCl4 and conventional COP are lesser inrange when compared to the actual COP.
Fig.7. Water temperature vs & goldIn figure 7 it is found that the actual COP ismaximum for 0.1%gold up to 160C and after 160Cit is maximum for 0.2%gold it shows that COPvalue can be altered by varying the watertemperature.Fig.
8. Water temperature vs & 0.2% gold + CNTIn figure 8 the conventional and 0.
2% goldvalues are same at a particular temperature (at100C) but while increasing the temperature of thewater the actual COP is maximum for 0.2% gold.Fig.
9. Water temperature vs & 0.1% gold + CNTIn figure 9 the actual COP is comparedwith the 0.1% of gold and 0.1% of gold along withCNT it is noted that the mixture of 0.1% Gold +CNT attained the maximum COP, also theirdifference in range of COP between gold andconventional is large.
Table IV. Various losses in VCRSThe table IV shows the Various losses incompressor, condenser, capillary tube andevaporator. The COP of the system can beincreased by reducing the losses in the components(compressor, condenser, capillary tube andevaporator) different types of lubricants withdifferent proportions are added to the lubricant toimprove the COP of the system. The powerconsumption of the compressor reduces by 25%when the Nano lubricant is used instead ofconventional method 10.CONCLUSIONThe addition of Nano-particles in theVCRS has shown significant increase in the COPof the system.
There is also a reduction in time tocool the water from higher temperature to lowertemperature. The cooling time reduction alsocomes with comparatively lower heat loss in theevaporator when Nano-particles were added. Nanoparticles increases the thermal conductivity by51.1%. 14 The coefficient of performance of therefrigeration system also increases by 33% whenthe conventional POE oil is replaced with Nanorefrigerant 10.
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