Evidence and Consequences of Global Warming
Global warming is the issue of which the Earth’s temperature rises. It causes many different problems for communities, ecosystems and species across. There are many different reasons for which people believe that global warming is happening. One of these reasons is the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is a naturally occurring thing. It works by trapping heat from the sun in the Earth’s atmosphere. Over time humans have enhanced this process from burning fossil fuels, agriculture and land clearing. When you enhance the process it traps more of the sun’s heat in the atmosphere making the temperature of Earth’s surface higher. Coral bleaching is one of the many consequences of global warming. It happens from rising water temperatures across the world. The rise of sea levels is another consequence of global warming. The water temperature rise making the ice caps melt that make the sea levels rise. The number of extreme weather events across the globe have increased and are caused from global warming. Since 1900 carbon emissions have increased significantly. Since 1970, carbon emissions have increased by more than 90%. The increase of carbon emissions into the atmosphere have significantly increased the rate of global warming around the world.
The greenhouse effect is a naturally occurring thing that warms the Earth’s surface from the radiating heat from the sun trapped in the Earth’s atmosphere. There are many different types of gases in the atmosphere that create the greenhouse effect. There are other types of gases that are harmful to the greenhouse effect. These gases are carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and ozone. The increase of fossil fuel burning, such as oil, coal and natural gas, agriculture, deforestation and the destruction of coral reefs have all contributed to the increase of gases in the atmosphere that increase the greenhouse effect. The increasing amount of gases have caused the Earth’s surface temperature to rise over time. This has happened because the layer has increased and that causes the heat from the sun to be trapped in the Earth’s atmosphere. Without the greenhouse effect the world would be a lot colder. The Earth’s average temperature would be at -18°c. The release of emissions into the atmosphere started in the mid-1700s with the industrial revolution. The invention of steam power saw the burning of coal with released toxic gases into the atmosphere. We know that the rate of global warming has increased over time by looking at air bubbles in ice cores which tell us the amount of carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide have increased and are still increasing over time.
(Curious. (2018). The enhanced greenhouse effect. online Available at: https://www.science.org.au/curious/earth-environment/enhanced-greenhouse-effect) Accessed 14 Jun. 2018. (Csiro.au. (2018). What is climate change? – CSIRO. online Available at: https://www.csiro.au/en/Research/OandA/Areas/Assessing-our-climate/Climate-change-QA/What Accessed 14 Jun. 2018.
One of the side effects of global warming is that coral reefs around the world are becoming bleached due to the rising water temperature. It is predicted that coral bleaching will become more frequent in reefs across the world. Coral bleaching can occur when the temperature of the water increases by only 1°c. If coral reefs are exposed to high temperature for a long period of time they will slowly start to die destroying the marine ecosystem. If the temperature of the water returns to normal, the coral reefs will slowly regain their colour and will start receiving the right nutrients to survive. When coral reefs become bleached, the coral loses the ability to gain nutrients. Some types of coral have the ability to still gain nutrients while bleached. Coral bleaching on the Great Barrier Reef has been recorded to have started happening in 1996. The time when coral bleaching is at its highest is between February and April.
(Gbrmpa.gov.au. (2018). Coral bleaching – GBRMPA. online Available at: http://www.gbrmpa.gov.au/managing-the-reef/threats-to-the-reef/climate-change/what-does-this-mean-for-species/corals/what-is-coral-bleaching Accessed 15 Jun. 2018. (Bom.gov.au. (2018). Coral Bleaching. online Available at: http://www.bom.gov.au/oceanography/oceantemp/GBR_Coral.shtml Accessed 15 Jun. 2018.
Around the world in coastal areas, sea levels will start rising, with many homes and communities under threat. Rising sea levels is due to melting ice caps and thermal expansion. The threat it has on the coast is quite significant in future years. Due to rising water temperatures, the ice caps in artic regions are melting at a rapid rate, causing there to be more water in the ocean creating higher sea levels. Thermal expansion is happening also because of rising ocean temperatures. The warm water expands taking up more area and making coast lines around the world smaller. The effect of rising sea levels means that it can have a negative effect of coastal habitats across the world. Erosion will occur with rising sea levels and will destroy beaches by the height that the water has changed. Flooding will also happen to lakes and flat wets that are near the coast. Rising ocean levels will affect many different habitats and communities in many ways.
( The Watchers – Daily news service | Watchers.NEWS. (2018). Coastal erosion caused by rising sea level is greater than previously thought. online Available at: https://watchers.news/2012/09/08/coastline-erosion-due-rise-sea-level-greater-previously-thought/ Accessed 16 Jun. 2018. (Nationalgeographic.com. (2018). Sea Level Rise. online Available at: https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/sea-level-rise/ Accessed 16 Jun. 2018.
Extreme weather events have been recorded to have had a higher frequency across the world. The cause of the more extreme weather events is due to climate change. Heat waves and droughts have been felt across many parts of Australia and many other parts of the world during summer. Floods, hurricanes and bush fires are some of the extreme weather events that are happening across the world each year. Climate scientists say that the frequency of heat waves across the world has increased and with further warming the amount of heat waves across the globe is going to increase. In the U.S. the bush fires that they are having are becoming more intense and extreme. The U.S. National Climate Assessment says that with earlier snowmelt and more heat waves, the soil and trees are drying up quicker making the bush fires more extreme and dangerous. The amount of rainfall in the U.S. between 1958 and 2007 on average has increased by 20%. This has caused many different things to happen. One of the issues it has caused is the amount of flash flooding in different areas. The intensity of the rain has increased as well making the chance of flash flooding happening a lot higher. The amount of extreme weather events has increased and so has the intensity of them and they are set to increase in the future years.
(Wri.org. (2018). Extreme Weather: What’s Climate Change Got to Do With It? | World Resources Institute. online Available at: http://www.wri.org/blog/2017/09/extreme-weather-whats-climate-change-got-do-it Accessed 16 Jun. 2018. (Union of Concerned Scientists. (2018). Are Severe Rain storms, Snow storms, Drought, and Tornadoes Linked to Global Warming?. onlineAvailableat:https://www.ucsusa.org/global-warming/science-and-impacts/impacts/global-warming-rain-snow tornadoes.html#.WySdWKczZPZ Accessed 16 Jun. 2018.
Global warming and rising temperature is causing many different issues around the world for different habitats and communities. The rising temperature is caused by the greenhouse effect that is trapping heat from the sun in the Earth’s atmosphere. The effect of the rising temperature is the bleaching of coral reefs, the rise of sea levels across the world and the frequency of extreme weather events and the intensity of them.