EVH 512 Environmental Health And Community Resilience Organizational Analysis Report Primary Health Model Component

EVH 512
Environmental Health And Community Resilience
Organizational Analysis Report

Primary Health Model Component:
Maternal And Child Health Care

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Jalesi Kena
s180984
Bachelor of Environmental Health
1.0 Introduction
USAID is the abbreviation for United States Agency for International Development which was established in November 3rd, 1961 when the Foreign Assistance Act was signed by President Kennedy of which USAID was engendered by executive order.

Furthermore, USAID leads international development and humanitarian efforts to preserve lives, reduce penuriousness, fortify democratic governance and avail people progress beyond assistance.

Moreover, U.S. peregrine assistance has always had the twofold purport of furthering America’s fascinates while ameliorating lives in the developing world. USAID carries out U.S. peregrine policy by promoting broad-scale human progress at the same time it expands stable, free societies, engenders markets and trade partners for the United States, and fosters good will abroad.

USAID is an ecumenical bellwether in maternal and child health and partners with regimes to meet the health desiderata of their women and children. USAID acts as a catalyst to leverage incipient conceptions, mobilize domestic resources, and expedite ecumenical progress by cumulating incipient partners around a mundane goal: ascertain women and children have the same chance of survival, regardless of where they are born.

Rudimentally, the PHC component ascertains comprehensive and adequate health care to children and to mothers, both expecting and otherwise. Individuals who are at the greatest risk of health quandaries (additionally kenned as ‘receptors’) of whom can potentially thrive and contribute ecumenically needs to be adequately counselled on family orchestrating and safe sex.

Consequently, nations will develop and enhance a health- positive environment whereby receptors can be reduced of their health risks and become productive in their respective communities or societies.

1.1 Aim
The executive aim of this analysis report is to unravel the significance of the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) with respect to their global commitment towards Maternal and Child Health Care which includes family planning, being a Primary Health Care model component.
1.2 Objectives
The objectives of this analysis report are as follows:
Briefly unfold the background information of USAID
Determine the services delivered by USAID
Ascertain the monetary system of USAID
Unravel the limitations of USAID in delivering services
Provide recommendations to mitigate the limitations of USAID
2.0.0 USAID Today
USAID make progress toward this by reducing the reach of conflict, obviating the spread of pandemic disease, and counteracting the drivers of violence, instability, transnational malefaction and other security threats. They promote American prosperity through investments that expand markets for U.S. exports; engender a calibre playing field for U.S. businesses; and support more stable, resilient, and democratic societies. They stand with people when disaster strikes or crisis emerges as the world bellwether in humanitarian assistance.

2.0.1 Organisation Structure

2.1.0 Mission And Vision
Their Mission: On behalf of the American people, they promote and demonstrate democratic values abroad, and advance a free, tranquil, and prosperous world. In support of America’s peregrine policy, the U.S. Agency for International Development leads the U.S. Government’s international development and disaster assistance through partnerships and investments that preserve lives, reduce penuriousness, invigorate democratic governance, and aid people emerge from humanitarian crises and progress beyond assistance.

2.1.1 Core Values
PASSION FOR MISSION
They come to work to foster sustainable development and advance human dignity ecumenically.
EXCELLENCE
They strive for efficiency, efficacy, and paramount results across our work.

INTEGRITY
They are veracious and transparent, accountable for our efforts, and maintain a consistently high moral standard.

RESPECT
They demonstrate deference for one another, our partners, and the people we accommodate in communities around the world.

EMPOWEREMENT
They elevate all voices striving for ecumenical economic, environmental, and gregarious progress.

INCLUSION
They value our differences and draw vigour from diversity.

COMMITMENT TO LEARNING
They seek to ameliorate ourselves and our work continually through reflection and evaluation.

3.0 USAID Services
USAID demonstrates America’s good will around the world; increases ecumenical stability by addressing the root causes of violence; opens incipient markets and engenders opportunity for trade; engenders innovative solutions for once unsolvable development challenges; preserves lives; and advances democracy, governance, and tranquillity.

3.1.0 Maternal and Child Health
USAID’s maternal and child health programs work to ascertain that all women and children have the same chance of a salubrious life, regardless of where they are born. In the past 10 years, USAID has availed preserve the lives of more than 5 million children and 200,000 women. Our efforts fixate on 25 priority countries, that together account for more than two-thirds of maternal and child deaths ecumenical. Despite this progress, more than 15,000 children and 830 women still die every day from causes that could have been obviated. Mothers and children are invaluable to their families, communities, societies, and economies, and the loss of even one life purloins these families and communities of their potential.

USAID is an ecumenical bellwether in maternal and child health and partners with regimes to meet the health desiderata of their women and children. USAID acts as a catalyst to leverage incipient conceptions, mobilize domestic resources, and expedite ecumenical progress by cumulating incipient partners around a prevalent goal: ascertain women and children have the same chance of survival, regardless of where they are born. USAID’s support fixates on scaling up high-impact interventions that address the main causes of death, utilizing data to prioritize populations and geographies and innovation to expedite progress.
To achieve this goal, USAID works to ameliorate the accessibility and quality of fundamental interventions that can preserve, and have preserved, millions of lives, categorized into five key areas:
maternal health
newborn health
immunization
child health
water, sanitation, and hygiene
Nevertheless, this analysis report will focus on two key areas, namely; maternal health and child health with family palnning.

3.1.1 Maternal Health
In the 25 U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) priority countries, the maternal mortality ratio decremented by more than a moiety over the past two decades. Despite such substantial progress, the World Health Organization (WHO) reports that 830 women still die every day from preventable causes cognate to gravidity. Many of these women emanate from poor communities or rural areas and do not distribute in a facility – one of the most efficacious ways to ascertain that women have access to the care and commodities needed to ascertain the safety of both mother and child.

Josna, a new mother, stands with her four-month-old baby in her home in Bangladesh. She and 1.2 million other women in Bangladesh receive texts with vital health information through the Mobile Alliance for Maternal Action, or MAMA. Photo Credit: Amy Fowler / USAID
Source: https://www.usaid.gov/what-we-do/global-health/maternal-and-child-health/technical-areas/maternal-healthUSAID efforts to culminate maternal mortality are founded on three interdependent components:
Enabling and mobilizing individuals and communities. The community is an essential part of any health system. When women have access to high-quality care and trust their providers, they seek out care for themselves and their families. USAID fortifies programs to ameliorate individual, household, and community deportments and norms circumventing maternal health and decision-making. In integration, USAID partners with community bellwethers, local and national regimes, and private sector organizations to amend the equity of access to accommodations for the most vulnerably susceptible women.

Advancing quality, reverent care. USAID accentuates the integration of family orchestrating with maternal care accommodations, and the scale-up of quality maternal and foetal care accommodations through integrated, comprehensive strategies that visually examine health systems holistically. USAID targets a variety of indirect causes that contribute to maternal mortality. The Agency withal is working to increment fixate on maternal morbidity and incapacitation in partner countries. Throughout each of these concrete areas of focus is an accentuation on obeisant maternity care that promotes women’s cognizance and cull of care options.

Fortifying health systems and perpetual learning. Through both public and private sector partnerships, USAID works to reinforce countries’ health systems holistically, at all levels of operation. Monitoring systems provide invaluable data on past and current progress that are then used to refine and amend health systems. In integration, USAID promotes innovation and research in both policies and programs and works to scale up high-impact interventions.

USAID’s ultimate goal to culminate preventable maternal mortality within a generation is a bold vision, but it is one that now has the fortification of key partners from around the globe. Through a fixate on high-burden countries, collaboration with a wide array of partners, accentuation on amended access to and quality of care and referral systems, and systems for holding regimes accountable, the vision is achievable.

3.1.3 Child Health
Many child deaths attributed to pneumonia, diarrhea, and malaria could be averted by opportune utilization of kenned, affordable, low-technology interventions, including antibiotics, oral rehydration solution, and zinc treatment for diarrheal diseases, and anti-malarial. However, in many high-mortality countries, families and caregivers lack access to high-quality facility-predicated accommodations. Reliable and timely access to treatment is fundamental to prosperously addressing child mortality.

Ecumenical, the lives of 100 million children have been preserved since 1990, due in part to the work of the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). In 2016 alone, USAID’s child health programs availed reach 55 million children with essential – often life preserving – health accommodations.

USAID’s efforts to ameliorate child health are cross sectoral, and include timely, precise diagnosis and treatment of malaria; water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) infrastructure and comportments; adequate pabulum; and vigorous, resilient routine immunization systems.

Water, sanitation and hygiene. Access to amended WASH accommodations benefits entire communities and preserves children’s lives. Since fiscal year 2014, USAID’s dihydrogen monoxide activities have resulted in more than 4.3 million people with amended access to sanitation facilities. WASH infrastructure and comportments are proximately linked to alimentation, and last year USAID’s pabulum efforts reached more than 12 million children with programs that reduced stunting and anaemia incremented utilization of optimal pabulum practices, fortified community gardens, and treated acute malnutrition.

Integrated community case management. USAID supplementally works to combat ecumenical child mortality through both direct and indirect support of iCCM programs. USAID’s work circumventing iCCM includes fortifying implementation of iCCM programs at the community level, fortifying coordination of iCCM programs at the national level, advocating for integrated case management at the national and ecumenical levels, and synthesizing research findings and the latest learning from iCCM programming ecumenical.

Community health workers. USAID fortifies programs to train, supply, and supervise front-line health workers to treat children for both diarrhea and pneumonia, as well as malaria in malaria-affected countries. These health workers employ affordable and low-technology interventions, including oral rehydration solution and zinc, oral antibiotics, and artemisinin-predicated amalgamation therapy. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria enable CHWs to test for malaria at the community level and to differentiate between malarial and non-malarial pyrexia in children. By empowering community health workers and bringing the point of care into communities, community-level interventions embolden families to seek out needed care.

Source: https://www.usaid.gov/what-we-do/global-health/maternal-and-child-health/technical-areas/child-health

In 2015, the U.S. Government pledged $1 billion to Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance. By working to strengthen routine immunizations and working with Gavi to ensure the right vaccines are available and affordable, we can save 2 million children. Photo credit: Neil Brandvold for USAID.

Source: https://www.usaid.gov/what-we-do/global-health/maternal-and-child-health/technical-areas/child-health
Family Planning
As the world’s most sizably voluminous family orchestrating bilateral donor, USAID is committed to availing countries meet the family orchestrating and reproductive health desiderata of their people. USAID fortifies Family Orchestrating 2020’s goal to reach 120 million more women and girls in the world’s poorest countries with access to voluntary family orchestrating information, contraceptives, and accommodations by 2020.

When USAID launched its family orchestrating program in 1965, fewer than 10 percent of women in the developing world (omitting China) were utilizing a modern contraceptive method, and the average family size was over six. Today, in the 31 countries where USAID focuses its support, modern contraceptive prevalence has incremented to 30 percent, and average family size has dropped to 4.4%. USAID’s work in reproductive health additionally fixates on ending child espousement, female genital mutilation/cutting, gender-predicated violence and more.

Benefits of Family Planning
left000Protects women’s and children’s health by reducing high-risk pregnancies and allowing sufficient time between pregnancies
left000Reduces HIV and AIDS through the prevention of new HIV infections and mother-to-child transmission via increased access to voluntary family planning information, services and commodities, including condoms
left000Decreases abortion
 
left000Advances individuals’ rights to decide their own family size
left000Improves women’s opportunities for education, employment and full participation in society
left000Reduces poverty by contributing to economic growth at the family, community and national levels
left000Mitigates the impact of population dynamics on natural resources and state stability
Source: https://www.usaid.gov/what-we-do/global-health/family-planning
4.0 Monetary System
Dollars To Results
This section of the analysis report will unravel the budget allocation for MCH and family planning with its breakdown.

Emergency Response $3.9b
HIV/AIDS $3.5b
Operating Expenses $1.9b
Government and Civil Society $1.6b
Basic Health $1.5b
Agriculture $1.2b
Maternal and Child Health, Family Planning $1.1b
Basic Education $740m
General Environmental Protection $546m
Administration and Oversight $440m
Developmental Food Aid/Food Security Assistance $383m
Conflict, Peace, and Security $382m
Water Supply and Sanitation $374m
Source: https://results.usaid.gov/results
MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH, FAMILY PLANNING
$60m: couple years protection
$3.3m: women giving birth received uterotonics in the third stage of labour or immediately after birth
$194k: community health workers provide family planning information, referrals, and/or services during the year
$103k: newborns not breathing at birth resuscitated
$3.8k: communities certified as “open defecation free”
5.0 Limitations and Recommendations
a). Limitations
Some priority countries were highly affiliated with wars such as Afghanistan
Some priority countries were highly exposed to epidemics
There were countries where women and girls were stigmatized in their respective societies/ communities
There were individuals who were not literally capable of which basic education had to be implemented
Some communities were located in remote areas which hindered services to be accessed by them
Some communities did not readily accept change as they were strongly rooted with their beliefs and customs
b). Recommendations
Highly recommend that communities’ access basic education
There is a need to understand the customs and belief systems of communities to better understand their social life
Conduct community asset mapping to unravel their cultural resources and capitalise it for their benefits
Create poster papers that can be understood by the communities to help create awareness/ educate/ enlighten them
References
Anon, (2018). online Available at: https://www.cartercenter.org/resources/…/health/…/health…/ln_maternal_care_final.pd.. Accessed 4 Sep. 2018.

IMA World Health. (2018). Maternal and Child Health (MCH) – IMA World Health. online Available at: https://imaworldhealth.org/maternal-and-child-health-mch/ Accessed 4 Sep. 2018.

Mchb.hrsa.gov. (2018). Maternal and Child Health Bureau | Maternal and Child Health Bureau. online Available at: https://mchb.hrsa.gov/ Accessed 4 Sep. 2018.

Usaid.gov. (2018). U.S. Agency for International Development. online Available at: https://www.usaid.gov Accessed 4 Sep. 2018.

World Health Organization. (2018). Maternal, newborn, child and adolescent health. online Available at: http://www.who.int/maternal_child_adolescent/en/ Accessed 4 Sep. 2018.

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