Evaluation stakeholder is an independent agent and no decision

Evaluation

   D-CETI, as any other typical system-of-systems,
consists of different technical and socio economic and legal systems which are
involved in exchanges and trading of goods, services, and value(Boardman and
Sauser, 2006; Jamshidi, 2005, 2009; Svetinovic 2013). These independent

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Systems
such as smart cars, energy power plants etc. use D-CETI as an integration
platform to develop a larger, complex system-of-systems. Such a system then has
characteristics such as following(Boardman and Sauser, 2006): Autonomy of the subsystems, Belonging of subsystems according to
their benefits, Connectivity between
the systems, Technical and Managerial Diversity
due to the independent nature of each system, 
Emergence of new unforeseen
behaviors and functionalities as a result of autonomy and connectivity. D-CETI
was qualitatively evaluated in this paper by comparing its architecture to
other similar trading platforms architectures, based on following seven
criteria: Carbon Credits Database: Most
of the systems store data centrally hence the storage can be easily misused by
malicious parties that can collect data to attain private information about
trading agents. However, in D-CETI addresses this privacy issue by completely
decentralizing and through its rule of anonymity of replicated database which
hides owners’ identities making it hard to track any perusal information. Credits Issuing: D-CETI issues
credits using secure smart meter readings and mining code. Whereas usually for
issuing credits, an external access to user’s private information is created, about
which credits they possess. Role of the
Central Component: All trading systems considered here other than D-CETI
have a central component to store user information, their credits and sign
contracts. D-CETI, on the other hand, maintains an anonymous transaction
history. Contracts are also processed anonymously hence without affecting
privacy. Decentralization of Activities: In
D-CETI, all activities are controlled in a decentralized manner. It may be
considered a multi agent system where every stakeholder is an independent agent
and no decision is forced on anyone. This is not the case with similar systems.
Provision of Trading Information: Without
needing a central component as in other systems, in D-CETI all trading history
is available publicly without breaking anyone’s privacy. Privacy Features: D-CETI and another model presented in Ermolieva
et al.(2010), share similar privacy considerations. However, D-CETI provides
full autonomy to its participants to prepare their own contracts. Compliance Enforcement and Certification:
As opposed to other system which have clear procedures on compliance,
allowance provisions and bankability of credits, D-CETI has its focus on open carbon
trading with less enforcement rules.

 

Limitations
& future work

 One long term advantage of D-CETI is that as  its centralization the participants are
independent from any regulatory body’s decisions . However, this does make the
system unstable. ON the other hand, the motivation to participate in carbon
emission reduction process helps to produce a more stable system. The number of
agencies participating in carbon emissions trading through D-CETI cannot be
easily estimated otherwise but through Bitcoin statistics. D-CETI credits are
in many ways similar to Bitcoins and work on the same principles. However,
D-CETI in some ways overcomes instability of Bitcoin value by backing D-CETI credits
with the carbon emission reductions. Also there is no internal limit of D-CETI
credits like there is on Bitcoin. Even the security and anonymity situation is
enhanced in D-CETI as it relies on OT framework for privacy improvement as
compared to Bicoin. Also this model is compatible with future enabling of
voting pools.

 To authenticate D-CETI architecture’s achievability,
a D-CETI prototype was implemented. The prototype showed various limitations
which are open to research issues. Some of them include: a fool-proof smart
meter must guarantee privacy, integrity, availability and fault tolerance;
credit generation in D-CETI is limited to single smart meters; an optimal way
of trading blockchain-based commodities is required; the cold wallet trading id
currently the only way available in D-CETI to make asset transactions. A smart
metering solution was introduced by Rial and Danezis(2011), and for electronic
wallets by Chaum and Pedersen (1993), to better preserve privacy. International
certification process can also be another topic of research.

 

Conclution

  Carbon Emissions trading are a promising way
to control and reduce carbon emissions and negative environmental impacts.
However, existing systems are not on their full potential yet: the most
significant issue being thee lack of their systematic privacy and protection for
trading agents which in turn is due to their centralized architectures. In this
paper, a decentralized system-of-systems called D-CETI is discussed in detail.
The privacy protection is not a feature for D-CETI but a core architectural
property of its structure. It is also easier to integrate with other economic
or technical systems as discussed above. D-CETI is basically based on Bitcoin
trading mechanism. D-CETI also uses Open transactions.

 For Evaluation of D-CETI, various other
trading systems were compared to D-CETI based on a certain set of criteria. It
is seen that by giving more systematic decentralization and privacy protection,
more traders will prefer D-CETI and the overall trading activity will increase
on D-CETI eventually helping with reduced carbon emissions. 

Evaluation

   D-CETI, as any other typical system-of-systems,
consists of different technical and socio economic and legal systems which are
involved in exchanges and trading of goods, services, and value(Boardman and
Sauser, 2006; Jamshidi, 2005, 2009; Svetinovic 2013). These independent

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For You For Only $13.90/page!


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Systems
such as smart cars, energy power plants etc. use D-CETI as an integration
platform to develop a larger, complex system-of-systems. Such a system then has
characteristics such as following(Boardman and Sauser, 2006): Autonomy of the subsystems, Belonging of subsystems according to
their benefits, Connectivity between
the systems, Technical and Managerial Diversity
due to the independent nature of each system, 
Emergence of new unforeseen
behaviors and functionalities as a result of autonomy and connectivity. D-CETI
was qualitatively evaluated in this paper by comparing its architecture to
other similar trading platforms architectures, based on following seven
criteria: Carbon Credits Database: Most
of the systems store data centrally hence the storage can be easily misused by
malicious parties that can collect data to attain private information about
trading agents. However, in D-CETI addresses this privacy issue by completely
decentralizing and through its rule of anonymity of replicated database which
hides owners’ identities making it hard to track any perusal information. Credits Issuing: D-CETI issues
credits using secure smart meter readings and mining code. Whereas usually for
issuing credits, an external access to user’s private information is created, about
which credits they possess. Role of the
Central Component: All trading systems considered here other than D-CETI
have a central component to store user information, their credits and sign
contracts. D-CETI, on the other hand, maintains an anonymous transaction
history. Contracts are also processed anonymously hence without affecting
privacy. Decentralization of Activities: In
D-CETI, all activities are controlled in a decentralized manner. It may be
considered a multi agent system where every stakeholder is an independent agent
and no decision is forced on anyone. This is not the case with similar systems.
Provision of Trading Information: Without
needing a central component as in other systems, in D-CETI all trading history
is available publicly without breaking anyone’s privacy. Privacy Features: D-CETI and another model presented in Ermolieva
et al.(2010), share similar privacy considerations. However, D-CETI provides
full autonomy to its participants to prepare their own contracts. Compliance Enforcement and Certification:
As opposed to other system which have clear procedures on compliance,
allowance provisions and bankability of credits, D-CETI has its focus on open carbon
trading with less enforcement rules.

 

Limitations
& future work

 One long term advantage of D-CETI is that as  its centralization the participants are
independent from any regulatory body’s decisions . However, this does make the
system unstable. ON the other hand, the motivation to participate in carbon
emission reduction process helps to produce a more stable system. The number of
agencies participating in carbon emissions trading through D-CETI cannot be
easily estimated otherwise but through Bitcoin statistics. D-CETI credits are
in many ways similar to Bitcoins and work on the same principles. However,
D-CETI in some ways overcomes instability of Bitcoin value by backing D-CETI credits
with the carbon emission reductions. Also there is no internal limit of D-CETI
credits like there is on Bitcoin. Even the security and anonymity situation is
enhanced in D-CETI as it relies on OT framework for privacy improvement as
compared to Bicoin. Also this model is compatible with future enabling of
voting pools.

 To authenticate D-CETI architecture’s achievability,
a D-CETI prototype was implemented. The prototype showed various limitations
which are open to research issues. Some of them include: a fool-proof smart
meter must guarantee privacy, integrity, availability and fault tolerance;
credit generation in D-CETI is limited to single smart meters; an optimal way
of trading blockchain-based commodities is required; the cold wallet trading id
currently the only way available in D-CETI to make asset transactions. A smart
metering solution was introduced by Rial and Danezis(2011), and for electronic
wallets by Chaum and Pedersen (1993), to better preserve privacy. International
certification process can also be another topic of research.

 

Conclution

  Carbon Emissions trading are a promising way
to control and reduce carbon emissions and negative environmental impacts.
However, existing systems are not on their full potential yet: the most
significant issue being thee lack of their systematic privacy and protection for
trading agents which in turn is due to their centralized architectures. In this
paper, a decentralized system-of-systems called D-CETI is discussed in detail.
The privacy protection is not a feature for D-CETI but a core architectural
property of its structure. It is also easier to integrate with other economic
or technical systems as discussed above. D-CETI is basically based on Bitcoin
trading mechanism. D-CETI also uses Open transactions.

 For Evaluation of D-CETI, various other
trading systems were compared to D-CETI based on a certain set of criteria. It
is seen that by giving more systematic decentralization and privacy protection,
more traders will prefer D-CETI and the overall trading activity will increase
on D-CETI eventually helping with reduced carbon emissions. 

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