Dominance of Primary Relations: A village community is often regarded as primary group’. Hence the rural community is characterised by the primary relations. There exist faces-to- face relations among people. Every person knows every other and hence everyone is interested in the welfare of all. The village community is relatively small in size. The members frequently meet and maintain regular contacts.
The relationships are informal, personal and inclusive. Community spirit prevails over individual interests. People are free and frank in their expressions. A sense of belonging to the community holds them together. 3. Informal Social Control: Social control, that is, the control of social behaviour of people is relatively simpler and less problematic. Predominance of face-to-face relationship has made the task of regulating relations a simple one. Customs, traditions, group standards and morals are themselves effective as social pressures.
Any kind of social disobedience is easily noticed and the disobedient is put to gossip and slander. Formal means of social control such as law, legislation, police, court, etc. are not resorted to in normal situations to maintain the social order 4. Occupations: The rural community is marked by a predominant type of occupation, that is, agriculture. Agriculture is associated with different crafts like pottery, basket-making, spinning, weaving, carpentry, smothery, brick-making, shoe-making, tanning, curing hides, washing clothes, barbering, building houses and repairing, oil grinding, toy-making, etc.
In contrast with the urban society there is less division of labour and specialisation in rural community. Even opportunities for specialisation are also limited. Neither the villager is equipped with sufficient qualification to pursue varied tasks. On the contrary, the villager at times performs the role of an all rounder. He is often called a jack of all trades, but master of none. Women assist their men folk in various agricultural tasks. 5. Importance of Family: The rural community is built around the institution of family.
The rural family is very cohesive. It lives together as a unit, eats together and works together. The family circle provides the greatest Dart of the economic and social needs of its members. People are traditional and conservative. People are bound by family customs and traditions. Rural women are very much dependent on their men folk. They are very much sentimental.
They require the support of institutions like marriage and family for a living. Most of the time, the rural women engage themselves in indoor activities, but often they work in fields. In rural life, the family is the smallest unit and not the individual. Individual interests are subordinated to the family interests. Status of the individual is mostly derived from his family. Property is considered as a possession of the family itself. Individual accepts the authority of the family in almost all fields.
Marriage, religion, occupation, mode of living, etc. are all influenced by the tradition of the family. Generally, there is less individual question and rebellion in a family. Further, the rural family is mostly a joint family. Size of the family is normally big. Agricultural operation requires a large number of people.
The rural joint family meets the need for large labour force. 6. Role of Neighbourhood: ‘Neighbourhood’ is a community in miniature. It is similar to a community, but it is a smaller area in which relationships tend to be primary, or more or less intimate. The neighbourhood is a part of the village, town or city, in which live a number of families among whom close relationships exist. A neighbourhood has been defined as-an area in which the residents are personally well acquainted with each other and are in the habit of visiting one another, of exchanging articles and services and, in general of doing things together. In, a village the neighbourhood is of great importance.
Neighbours share the joys and sorrows together. They have the spirit of comradeship. There is not enough of individuality and speed in the life of the village to disregard the feeling, interests and expectations of the neighbours. They participate in all common ceremonies, functions and festivals. They assist one another in all important matters.
7. Faith in Religion: The rural people are mostly religious in their outlook. They have deep faith in religion, in God. They have awe and reverence and, more than that fear of God. Their main occupation is agriculture which mainly depends on the mercy of Nature. The rural men believe that the Nature-Gods will have to be pleased by various means to help them in agricultural operations.
The deep faith in religion and God has minimised their mental tension and disturbance. 8. Conservatism and Dogmatism: The rural people are said to be highly conservative, traditional and dogmatic in their approach. It is true that their social attitudes and behaviour patterns are dictated by traditions. They do not accept policies, plans, programmes, principles, projects, doctrines, etc. that the majority disapproached. They are basically skeptical in their attitude. 9.
Rural Community and Social Change: The villagers are generally simpletons. They cling firmly to their beliefs, traditions and ago-old practices. Custom is their ‘Kind they are not ready to go against it. Their behaviour is natural and not artificial.
They are far away from the superficial manners and artificial gestures. They live a peaceful life. They are free from mental tensions and conflicts. They dislike conflicts and quarrels. They are sincere, hardworking and hospitable.
But their problem is that they cannot accept the urban people and their way of life readily. They are not ready for sudden change. They are for status quo. They are in a way far away from the rapidly changing urban civilised world.
There is gap between the urban and the rural way of life. Of course nowadays the rural people are awakened to the need of the modern world. They are also modifying their behaviour patterns slowly and gradually. The Industrial Revolution and the consequent industrialisation have brought far-reaching results to the rural community. Rapid improvements in the fields of transport and communication, progress in the fields of science and technology, introduction of uniform system of education, implementation of various community welfare programmes and projects, opening of small factories and industries even in rural areas, provision of modern civilised facilities like radio, electricity, telephone, television, post and telegraph, newspapers, introduction of various domestic electrical appliances, increasing political consciousness of the people, the liberation of women, etc., have all contributed to some radical changes in the rural life.