The focus of socio-biology is on the biological evolution of various forms of adaptive social behaviour in lower animals and humans.
According to socio-biological theory, all organisms are impelled by genetic forces to act in ways that maximise the probability of survival of their genetic material. Socio-biology to certain extent believes that the most important social behaviour that appears to run counter to biological evolution in altruism. It refers to act of individuals who sacrifice their own goals, even their lives, for the sake of another person or the group. Altruism is totally inconsistent with the theory of biological evolution, which sees every organism as struggling for survival. Socio-biologists contend that the struggle to reproduce is not really among organism themselves but among DNA molecules. Altruism, according to Socio-biologists is preserving the greatest amount of the group’s genetic material. Socio-biologists explain many forms of social behaviour.
These include: (a) Altruistic behaviour. (b) Alarm reactions among some animals. (c) Reproduction. (d) Human sexual behaviour. (e) Racism. Socio-biological theory has been criticised on the following grounds: (1) The theory is untestable.
(2) Generalisation from animal behaviour to human behaviour is not so easy. (3) The theory justifies sexism and racism.