For instance, the cold deserts of Bolvia-Arctic can be compared with the cold desert of Ladakh and likewise, Sahara-Arabia-Gobi hot desert-complex can be compared with the South-Rajasthan hot desert-complex of India. Further, in India there occurs so much variation in ecological conditions from one place to another that one can study simultaneously different ecological phenomena within her geographical boundaries. Due to wide climatic and seasonal fluctuations, the ecological conditions of a given area do not remain static for a long time and the flora and fauna of the Indian subcontinent have evolved wide range of adaptations to cope with them.
Indians have a traditional and natural deep involvement in different ecological and environmental issues. Even a common man is well aware about the inter-relationships of vegetation, animals, habitat and environment many villagers have the unique capacity of forecasting about forthcoming natural calamities merely by observing changes in plans, animals and climate in their surroundings. Throughout India numerous laboratories have been engaged and still are engaged in investigating some specific ecological aspects such as soil ecology, plant ecology, animal ecology, limnology, oceanography, pollution biology, management and conservation of natural resources like land space, soil, water, wildlife, minerals, etc. During last two or three decades much ecological insight has been achieved about Indian subcontinent but despite these efforts, a coherent and complete picture of Indian ecology has not been emerged so far. However, history or growth of ecology in India can be studied separately for various ecological branches.