(I) Water related problem (II) Soil related problem and (III) Technology related problem (I) Water Related Problem: The problems are as follows: (i) Increasing Water Table: In some of the areas, ground water level increases to ground surface. Water table less than 1.5 m below the ground level is considered to be harmful for agricultural operation. (ii) Loss of Irrigation Water: The improper water management techniques result in large extent of loss of irrigation water. This is mainly because canal system and its branches are not properly lined. The seepage through improper lines is estimated the heavy loss of irrigation water. (iii) Water Logging: Productivity in water logged areas decreases considerably.
(iv) Decreasing Water Quality: Quality of water to the agricultural sector decreases. This factor should be taken care of while programming major and minor irrigation systems. (II) Soil Related Problem: Soil degradation is another problem in agriculture. (i) Salinization: Seepage through unlined irrigation stream, improper land planning is main cause leading to soil salinity. (ii) Wind and water erosion of soil: Erosion of soil due to wind and water are also given importance.
(iii) Increasing toxicity in soil: (III) Technology Related Problem: This problem are more due to application of chemical fertilizer and pesticides. (i) High quality application of fertilizer and pesticide. (ii) Increase in chemical content of soil and related degradation.
(iii) Higher toxicity affecting root zone of plants. Overdoses of chemicals and pesticides affect the soil structure and make it difficult for further cultivation. The knowledge on proper methods of application should be given to the farmers through better extension methods. Remedial Measures: To increase the agricultural productivity, proper remedial measures are to be taken for the above said three problems.
Since the area under cultivation is a serious limiting factor in India, proper technology measures should be taken to increase the productivity.
Integrated Approach for Sustainability in Agriculture:
1. Resources Problem (1) Salinity (2) Cultivable waste (3) Flood (4) Drainage (5) Improper distribution of irrigation water. Remedy (1) Soil reclamation (2) Quality improvement (3) Land management (4) Ground water management and (5) Policy measures. 2. Cropping System Problem: Monocropping affect the fertility of the soil.
Remedy Crop substitution for higher valued crops, increasing cropping intensity, policy measures relating to adding the mixed farming concepts to improve the productivity and income level of farms. 3. Inputs: Problem Inefficient distribution system of seed, chemical and fertilizer. Remedy Privatization, bulk purchase and storage in proper places and policy measure to strengthen their infrastructure to facilitate proper distribution of inputs in time and correct place. 4. Technology Problem: Recent technologies are costly.
Remedies Cost effective technology measure should be formulated to facilitate the poor farmer to adopt the technology. Policy for reorienting the measures regarding the cost-effective technologies are as follows: i. Incentives for higher productivity through technical change.
ii. Remunerative prices, subsidy on inputs. iii. Manpower improvement in training and management skills. iv.
Infrastructure administration management. v. Farmer responsible, farmer friendly administrators are needed. Ecological Approach for Environmental Problems: The key ecological factors are land, water, vegetation, air, sea and wild life.
The threats to them include overuse and pollution leading to soil erosion, salination, fertility decline, and degradation of plant quality, desertification, and poisoning via polluted water and airborne chemicals and radiation. There are limits to ecological carrying and self-regenerating capacity. They can be increased and but not yet surpassed.
To despair, ignore or reject an ecological message of doom is not likely to protect ecology. But the decision lies with thousands of farmers who must understand and act right way and in time.