ESSAY change management are the main aspects in

ESSAY IUBH International University of Applied Sciences (Campus Berlin)Change Management Current issues and challenges in Change Management Shivendra KothandaramanStudent ID: 9160473Rolandufer 13, D-10179 Berlin Germany Supervisor: Prof. Dr. Malte MartensenDate of submission: January 15th Current issues and challenges in change management page i Table of Contents Table of Contents Table of Contents …..

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…… 2 2.1.2.  DEFINITION B ………………………………………………………………………………. 2 2.2. Literature Review …………………………………………………………………………………….. 2 2.2.1.  Kurt Lewin’s Three Step Planned Change Model …………………………….. 2 2.2.2.  Kotter eight step Model……………………………………………………………………. 3 Methods …………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3 Results …………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 4 Discussion and Outlook……………………………………………………………………………………. 4 5.1.  Theoretical Implications ……………………………………………………………………………. 4 5.2.  Managerial Implications ……………………………………………………………………………. 5 5.3.  Limitations and Future research …………………………………………………………………. 5 3.4.5. References ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………viiDeclaration of Authenticity ……………………………………………………………………………………viii Current issues and challenges in change management page 1 1. Introduction In the present dynamic business world, when changes are not handled properly strainsthe ability of entrepreneurs to improve the business of creating and maintaining competitiveadvantage. Several organizations tend to adapt and change continuously to remain competitiveand effective. Latest statistics says that one out of three efforts towards organizational changeis successful by the leaders. Implementation of a successful change program is full of challengesand the change management process remains highly difficult. change is considered anopportunity to strengthen the business by aligning operations with strategy, take new risks andadvance careers. Change is not implemented in a single moment, and likewise the role ofbusiness leaders in managing change should not be reduced to a single event. The manager’srole in change must be active and visible in all phases of the change process. Theoretical modelsof change management are the main aspects in implementing rapid change. The objective ofthis essay is to discuss the challenges in the change management, which has become one of themost important issues for HR managers in today’s world. The organization of the essay willstart with a discussion of the two change models and their challenges related to changemanagement. Finally, the essay will provide recommendations and suggestions that can behelpful for management of change in the present business world. Perspective Organizational Organizational IndividualIndividual Table 1.1.: Research questions (own illustration)1 How does organizational culture affect change management? Research Questions2 How is organizational structure a determinant in change management process? 3  How does leadership affect change management 4  How do resources have effects on change management 2. Theoretical Foundations Change management is a basic skill that most leaders and managers should be competentand ready to accept. Moreover, managerial interest in the topic has been stimulated by thecomments of Peter Drucker as to whether one can manage change at all or merely lead orfacilitate its occurrence within an organization. Typically, the objective is to maximize thecollective efforts of all people involved in the change and minimize the risk of failure ofimplementing the change. Change is not implemented in a single moment, and the role ofleaders managing change should not be reduced to an event. The manager’s role in change mustbe active in all phases of the change process. There are four types of change that an organizationgoes through with the possibility of overlap among each phase. Operational changes can affectthe way in which the business operations are conducted. Strategic changes occur when thedirection or the strategy in which the business performed is affected. Cultural changes affectthe organizational rules such as the way the business is conducted. Political changes occurprimarily due to changes that happen on top levels in the organization, those working on thebottom level often notice the change at the top. Current issues and challenges in change management page 2 2.1. Basic Concepts 2.1.1. DEFINITION A Strategic management is a dynamic process of aligning strategies, performance andbusiness results. Effective combination of people, leadership, technology and processes alongwith strategy and successful delivery makes a change successful. To survive and grow theorganization must define and grow internal competencies, develop and maintain some rules andtheories to create the future. The organization must grow along with the changes or fall withoutadapting. The concept of strategic fit – how well the organization should be measured to meetthe requirements of the strategic change. This context has both external dimensions (political,socio-economic, technological, cultural and competitive) and internal dynamics (organizationalstructure, skills resources, systems and culture). Strategy gradually became how well anorganization could anticipate and react to change in its operating environment. 2.1.2. DEFINITION B Strategic change is defined as “changes in the content of a firm’s strategy as defined byits scope, resource deployments, competitive advantages, and synergy” Hofer and Schendel1978. In simple form strategic change is a way of changing the objectives and vision of thecompany to obtain greater success. It does not depend on the greatness of the strategy or howuseful the change may be for the organization, if you cannot make them understand to thepeople it’s worthless. A strategic change must be good consideration about contextcompatibility between the change and organization. It is obvious that changing something thatpeople used to do it for a long time is not easy. 2.2. Literature Review 2.2.1. Kurt Lewin’s Three Step Planned Change Model Kurt Lewin proposed a three-stage theory of change commonly referred to as Unfreeze,Change (or Transition), Freeze (or Refreeze). The first step being the unfreezing step includedetermining what needs to change, create the need for change and getting ready to change.Lewin was aware that change is a step by step process. This second stage is where we make thechanges that are needed. This stage is often the difficult as people are not aware whether thechange is going to be a success or a failure. The final of the three crucial steps is the re-freezingstep. Re-freezing suggests this stage is about implementing stability after the changes have beendone. Time plays a major role in implementing a change. This rigidity of strategic change does Current issues and challenges in change management page 3 not fit with modern thinking of being continuous and it is a chaotic process in which greatflexibility is demanded. Lewin`s model is a logic model that shows the chain of transformationsthat an organization must go through in a situation at a desired period. 2.2.2. Kotter eight step Model Kotter (1998) developed a model which should be used at the strategic level of anorganization to change its vision and subsequently transform the organization. Each phase lastsa certain amount of time and mistakes at any phase can impact the success of the change.• Step 1: determine the urgency of change• Step 2: form a strong nucleus, leading change• Step 3: create a new vision• Step 4: notify all new vision• Step 5: empower others to act on the vision• Step 6: create a short-term win• Step 7: maintain state of emergency• Step 8: anchoring changes in corporate culture (strengthen change)Finally, to make any change stick, it should become part of the core of the organization. If youlose the support of these people, you might end up back where you started. 3. Methods According to McKinsey&Company research, 70% of organizational transformationefforts fail significantly short of fulfilling their change vision. I have combined the keylearnings from various articles and stories from great organizations about the strategic change.The present study is based on the secondary data. strategic change has dominated the theoryand practice of change management since Kurt Lewin`s work. In 2002 J.Kotter came up witha new idea related to the change process, because they are available for analysis whichinfluences their thinking. Collection of data, analysis and presentation of data are importantelements in the process of change, but change behavior analysis is the one that pushes peopleinto a process to feel the change. Current issues and challenges in change management page 4 4. Results Lewin`s model is a relatively simple design and can be used to develop cu. The mostimportant goals in the process of change, are: create a sense of urgency, recruit powerful changeleaders, build a vision and effectively communicate it, remove obstacles, create quick wins, andbuild on your momentum. If you do these things, you can help make the change part of yourorganizational culture. That is how we declare that the change is successful. The elements inKotter – 8 steps model is extremely important, but the core issue is the behavior – what peopledo and that is how they need to be changed significantly react. The above-mentioned modelsKurt Lewin`s – 3 stage model and John Kotter – 8 steps model are the important models thatserve to implement the change in an organization. Since all models are very specific, they areall inaccurate to some extent. The most important aspect we need know whether they are useful– whether they help us to improve and succeed. 5. Discussion and Outlook The challenges faced in change management are: Thechallengesandproblemsfacedbytheorganizationisrelatedtothecomplexityand speed of change needed today. Thereisnoclearmethodforchangemanagementandchangemanagementisnotalways successful. Strategic change management does not have a timeline during which the expected changes are completed. It is highly important that all members of an organization agree on the change management and are willing to accept and work together for overcoming barriers. Managementshouldmaintainregularcommunicationwiththeiremployeesandensurethat any new information or change implementation is done with all employees on board. Employee resistance is a bigger challenge for business organizations. 5.1. Theoretical Implications After the discussion on the models and their results, it is important to consider howstrategic change is implemented in the real world. The example of Nokia which was one of theleading makers of the mobile handsets few years ago and which now finds itself at the bottomreminds us that the strategic drift occurs without anyone noticing it and by the time it gets Current issues and challenges in change management page 5 noticed, it becomes too late. The collapse of once famous companies like Chrysler pointed tothe transformational change that was sudden and radical in nature.The main aspect aboutstrategic change is that it is difficult to predict and control. Thus, it is important to deal with itby expecting the unexpected and be ready for anything. The companies need to embracechange, they are likely to be fail unless companies prepare to deal with sudden, unpredictable,discontinuous, and radical change. 5.2. Managerial Implications As to the managerial implications of the study, we find that differences in professionaldiscourse should be made explicit and be a constant point of attention in teams. Managerstypically think that it is not their role to interfere in the details of change projects. Yet, byadhering to this perspective, managers will use a specific discourse, specific kinds of speechacts and certain negotiation styles, which might not be understood by other professional groups.Thus, an explicit reflection on their own style and its effects on the interaction dynamics couldhelp managers to develop a broader view on the implementation of change and possibleresistance on the part of employees, thereby creating more and new options for action. 5.3. Limitations and Future research The study findings could have been complete if all the targeted changes likeorganizational were considered. It is recommended that a similar study be conducted with adifferent change but with a larger sample. Large sample size will resolve part of the limitationon this study and particularly that which relate to the number of articles studied. Current issues and challenges in change management page viiReferences ?  https://www.ijser.org/researchpaper/Strategic-Change-The-Influence-of-Managerial-Characteristics.pdf ?  http://www.ipedr.com/vol4/108-F00035.pdf ?  http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.870.8573&rep=rep1&type= pdf ?  http://feaa.ucv.ro/annals/v3_2010/0038v3-025.pdf Current issues and Challenges in change management page viiiDeclaration of Authenticity Herewith I confirm that this thesis is my own work, which was written without unauthorizedassistance and that all references used are marked appropriately. Berlin,15-01-2018 Shivendra kothandaramanPlace, Date Signature

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