Environment and forestry sector have been aninteresting topic to be discussed since UnitedNations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) lifted up climatechange and Reducing Emissions fromDeforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) mechanism issue. Forest was mentioned as one of carbon cyclechains which has potency to mitigate climate change. Asone of greenhouse gases, the carbon emission contributes to the ozone depletionwhich has caused the climate change. As the third biggest tropical rain forest area,Indonesia would be likely has a big role on world climate change mitigation.
Inaddition, Indonesia’s strategic development goals, known as Nawacita (NineAgenda Priorities) contains transitional way for realizing priorities andlong-term changes, aligning Indonesia’s aim as a politically sovereign andeconomically self-reliant nation with strong basic of culture identity. These priorities are in line with thenational commitment to climate change resilience. Government put climate change adaptation and mitigationintegrated as cross-cutting priorities of the National Medium-Term DevelopmentPlan. Based on INDC (Intended Nationally Determined Contribution Republic of Indonesia,2015) which submitted on Conference of Parties (COP) 21Paris 2015, it stated that Indonesia is on transition to a low carbon future byinvolving to the effort to prevent 2°C increase in global temperature. Indonesiaeffort to mitigate climate change was going forward to develop REDD duringUNFCCC in Bali in 2007, where the idea has also been added with forest degradationissue. REDD is a scheme to hamper theclimate change by giving compensation to the developing countries in protectingtheir forests. Simply said, REDD isa scheme of carbon trading using forests as its carbon storage. Thiscarbon trading scheme has been debated since Papua New Guinea and Costa Ricaelaborated the proposal for reducing emission from deforestation in the climatechange discussion in 2005.
Since UNFCCC in Bali,Indonesia developed various strategies related to climate change issue. Inorder to endure the implementation of the strategies in 2008 IndonesianGovernment established The National Council onClimate Change (DNPI) through presidential regulation 46 of year 2000. The DNPIdirectly chaired by President (President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono) and has beengiven significant authority to advise and oversee the implementation of bothclimate change adaptation and mitigation policies. In the process of runningthe DNPI, President was helped by the Vice Chairman of the CoordinatingMinister for People’s Welfare and the Coordinating Minister for EconomicAffairs. It also included many other government departments, such as theEnvironment, Finance, Forestry, Energy and Mineral Resources, and Agriculturedepartments as members of the DNPI. Themain function of the DNPI is to formulate policies, strategies and programs;implement and monitor implementation; and strengthen Indonesia’s position inregards to issues related to climate change. The council has eight workinggroups that focus on different aspects of climate change adaptation andmitigation, technology transfer, finance, forestry and post-Kyoto aims.
Tostrengthen the role of the DNPI, the members of the working groups come fromboth government institutions and non-government entities such asuniversities and the private sector. 1In2009, Indonesia voluntary pledge to reduce emission by 26% on its own efforts,and up to 41% with international support. Since that time, Indonesia hasdisseminated policy instrument related to climate change, such as the nationalaction plan on greenhouse gas emissions reduction as stipulated in PresidentialRegulation No. 61/2011 and greenhouse gasses inventory through PresidentialRegulation No. 71/2011.
Besides thosepolicy instruments, in 2011 Government of Indonesia established The REDD+Taskforce through Presidential Decree 25/2011. The REDD+ taskforce was designedin order to develop REDD+ in Indonesia and implement the Letter of Intent on”Cooperation on reducing Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Deforestation and ForestDegradation” between the Government of Indonesia and Norway, signed in May2010. Differentwith the DNPI, The Taskforce was not chaired by President; it was chaired bythe head of the Presidential Work Unit for Development Monitoring and Control(UKP4) of which the Taskforce forms part. The Taskforce conducted ten workinggroups which were each led by one government and one non-government representative. Themain objection of the Taskforce was to create an institutional and legalframework for REDD+ in Indonesia.
The function included designing formulationof a national strategy to reduce greenhouse gas emissions from deforestationand forest degradation and preparing for the implementation of mechanisms forREDD+ in Indonesia. 2 Political change in 2014 brought anew system related to climate change resilience. A new Indonesian President, Joko Widodo,decided to merge both The DNPI and the REDD+ Taskforce into The Ministry ofEnvironment and Forestry in 2014. TheMinistry of Environment and Forestry became the National Focal Point on ClimateChange. The merging of those three institutions was based on PresidentialDecree No.
16/2015. As the further step the Ministry of Environment andForestry issued regulation of the Minister of Environment and Forestry No.18/2015 included establishment of Echelons I Unit named Directorate General of Climate Change (DJPPI) tohandle the climate change issues, as well as forest and land fires in Indonesia(A Glance atDirectorate General of Climate Change, 2015). Milestone of Indonesia’s political instrumentrelated to climate change issues is shown by the figure II.
1. 1 https://theredddesk.org/countries/actors/national-council-climate-change-indonesia2https://theredddesk.org/countries/actors/redd-taskforce-indonesia