Entrepreneurship of Entrepreneurship, n.d.). Being a successful

Entrepreneurship is the process by which individual pursue opportunities regardless to the resources they currently control (Stevenson & Jarrilo as cited in Barringer & Ireland, 2010). Fred Wilson stated that entrepreneurship is the art of turning ideas into a business (Barringer & Ireland, 2010).   Entrepreneurship originated from French word “Entrepreneur”. Entrepreneurs are also known as self-employed people. There is no fix definition for entrepreneurs since people from different field of study perceived and defined it differently. An economist defines an entrepreneur as the one who makes the combination of resources to make them valuable. While to a psychologist, entrepreneur is typically driven by certain forces such as needs to obtain or attain something, to experiment and to accomplish targeted goal.

To businessmen, an entrepreneur may be a threat, an aggressive competitor but may also be an ally, a source of supply, a customer, or someone who creates wealth for others as well as finds better ways to utilize resources, reduce waste, and provide jobs to others (Hisrich, Peters & Shepherd, 2005).    Entrepreneurial Intention   Page 17 of 161   Some people believed entrepreneurs are born, not made. However, this myth is busted since many studies done in the past have reached a consensus where entrepreneurs can be made and are not genetically inherited (Barringer & Ireland, 2010). Everyone has the potential to become entrepreneur especially for those who have undergone educational process in universities (Gelard & Saleh, 2011; Ooi et al., 2011).

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   Becoming entrepreneurs, they are their own bosses and they make decision by themselves which offers the prestige of being the person in-charge, provides a greater possibility of achieving a significant financial rewards and achieving personal professional goal (Principles of Entrepreneurship, n.d.).    Being a successful entrepreneur is not easy.

Long term, systematic planning  and business expertise is needed such as developing business model, putting  together a new venture team, raising money, establishing partnerships,  managing finances, leading and motivating employees. Individuals should be  very careful in determining own self as it helps them to make the right  decision in choosing the right path for getting involved to be self-employed  (Kr. Baruah, n.

d.). Hence, identify entrepreneurial intention for a person  before becoming entrepreneur is important, this may give a person a clear goal  about what he want to be and  what to do in accomplishing his goals and lead  to succeed.    2.

3.2 Entrepreneurial Intention  According to Ajzen (1991:439), intention is the immediate antecedent of behavior. He claimed that behavior is not performed mindlessly but follows reasonably and consistently from the behavior-relevant information and behavior reinforced by rewarding events and weakened by pushing events.   Entrepreneurial Intention   Page 18 of 161   Individuals would like to be self-employed as they perceive that entrepreneurship is a suitable career path for them (Davidsson, 1995) and is a way for them to accomplish their personal goals, pursue own ideas and realize financial rewards (Barringer & Ireland, 2010: 31).    Entrepreneurial intention defined as willingness of individuals to perform entrepreneurial behavior, to engage in entrepreneurial action, to be selfemployed, or to establish new business (Dell, 2008; Dhose & Walter, 2010).

It usually involves inner guts, ambition and the feeling to stand on one?s feet (Zain, Akram & Ghani, 2010). An individual may have potential to be entrepreneur but not make any transition into entrepreneurship unless they have such intentions (Mohammad Ismail et al., 2009).  Birds (1988) proposed that entrepreneurial intention refers to individuals? states of mind that aimed at creating new venture, developing new business concept or creating new value within existing firms. It is an important factor in facilitating towards new venture establishment and has significant impact on the firms? venture success, survival and growth. He suggested that intentional process often begins based on an entrepreneur?s personal needs, values, wants, habits and beliefs.  Scholars empirically evidenced that entrepreneurial intention is a valid predictor for entrepreneurial behavior as entrepreneurial actions always fall into the category of intentional behavior.

Studying on entrepreneurial intention provides valuable insights for researcher to understand entrepreneurial process and predict entrepreneurial activities in better way through identifying antecedents of entrepreneurial intention (Davidsson, 1995; Bird, 1998; Krueger et al., 2000; Peterman & Kennedy, 2003; Liñán, 2004; Kolvereid & Isaksen, 2006; Krueger, 2007; Dell, 2008; Mohammad Ismail et al., 2009). Findings of Kolvereid and Isaksen (2006) on 297 business founders   Entrepreneurial Intention   Page 19 of 161   by using longitudinal data revealed that intentions to be self-employed did actually determine later entry into self-employment.

   Usually, individuals do not start a business as reflex, they do it intentionally rather than engage it accidentally (Krueger et al., 2000; Krueger, 2007). According to Krueger (2007) intention serves as mediating factor between entrepreneurial action and potential exogenous influence (traits, demographics, skills, social, cultural and financial support). They suggested that entrepreneurial intention helps in explaining the reasons on why certain individuals tend to start own business before opportunity scan or deciding type of business to involve in.

They stated that entrepreneurs themselves should benefit from a better understanding of their own motives, intention affords them a chance to understand what factors drive them to make their decisions to pursue entrepreneurial career and how the venture becomes reality.         Some scholars proposed that entrepreneurship education should be included in  entrepreneurial intention model. This is because entrepreneurship educational  and training programs lead to the changes of individuals in their attitude  towards entrepreneurship, their self-efficacy level which increase they control  beliefs that they are capable in managing entrepreneurial career, and change  their perceptions towards entrepreneurship, thus, affect their entrepreneurial intention (Peterman & Kennedy, 2003; Kolvereid & Isaksen, 2006; Dell, 2008;Tam, 2009).     2.3.

3 Attitude Toward The Behavior   According to Ajzen and Fishbein (2000:216), an attitude refers to individual?s general feeling of favorableness or favorableness toward various stimulus   Entrepreneurial Intention   Page 20 of 161   objects. If they have beliefs about an object, they automatically acquire attitude toward the particular object. Each belief links the object to some features; individuals? attitude toward the object acts as a function of their evaluations toward the features. Whenever individuals learn that the object is linked to a given attribute, their evaluations about the attribute becomes associated with the object. Attitudes are based on the total set of the person?s salient beliefs and the evaluations associated with those beliefs. Trevelyan (2009); Sagiri and Appolloni (2009) also indicated that behavior of a person is solely depends upon individual?s beliefs and attitudes, and those beliefs and attitudes play a very important role in determining individual?s action.

Individuals? perceptions on ability to perform specific tasks increase the likelihood of attitude converting into intention and subsequent behavior (Ajzen, 1991).  Ajzen (1991) referred attitude toward the behavior as the extent to which a person has a positive or negative valuation towards the behavior; while Li (2007) defined it as the individual?s attractiveness towards being selfemployed in the present study.  Xavier et al. (2009) referred it as the extent to which people perceived that there are good opportunities for them to start-up a business, or the degree on their attachment towards high status of entrepreneurs. Individuals who get to know their referents have started a business be more likely to see it as legitimate.   Kolvereid and Tkachev (1999); Dohse and Walter (2009); Paço, Ferreira, Raposo, Rodrigues and Dinis (2011) found that the attitude toward the behavior has direct and positive effect on entrepreneurial intentions. Hence, education and training should focus on changing personal attitudes than providing technical knowledge about business because the effects could be more significant to the process of business creation and to overcome the perceived barriers to entrepreneurship (Paco et al., 2011; Dohse & Walter 


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