Energy building techniques The purpose of solar daylight,

Energy saving methods are considered and applied in thedesign. Nevertheless, in order to attain a substantial reduction in energyconsumption in the structure, both renewable energy systematic technologies andenergy-efficiency methods are applied. It is vital to implement these standardswithin the newly constructed K block building since the European Union haveagreed to apply all the aspects in order to achieve the goal of a nearly zeroenergy building by 2020 (Chel and Kaushik, 2017).

It is vital to apply different methods of renewable energysystems into the redevelopment of the K block. There are severalaspects that need to be considered in order to discover ways to achieve thenearly zero energy passive building design before the building is constructed.One of the main aspects that is considered is the use of equipment, with the greatestenergy efficiency, and the combination of renewable energy technologiesdesigned for several uses. The environmental impact and the choice of thematerials and renewable energy technologies have been discussed briefly. The solar passive building technique is one aspect that isreflected in the design prior the construction of the building. The utilisationof low embodied energy building materials for the construction of the buildingis also discussed. The third aspect weighs in on the discussion of integratedrenewable systems for solar photovoltaic electrification and hot water heating.

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The discussion of building sustainability is becomingfurther developed and a significant factor in the building sector across theUK. The central focus of sustainable proposal is to decrease depletion ofresources such as raw materials, energy and water. Other factors such asavoiding environmental degradation, which is generated by facilities andsubstructure during its life cycle, is examined. The creation of builtenvironment which is useful, operative as well as safe. Low-energy building techniquesThe purpose of solar daylight, passive heating and coolingsystems and transport for grey water will be incorporated with the design ofthe K block redevelopment. These aspects will be based on the climateconditions on the Trefforest site.

The practice of the low energy building materials is asignificant factor that is discussed further in order to achieve a low embodiedenergy for the newly constructed K block building. As well as low energybuilding materials, energy efficient appliances such as an air-conditioner, LEDlighting, cooking appliances and refrigeration will be calculated into thebuilding. The proposed design of the K block will be incorporatingrenewable energy systems such as rainwater harvesting system, solarphotovoltaic panels at the south-facing roof top of the K block building togenerate electricity and solar water heating panels to supply hot water. Theeconomic analysis and environmental emission will be discussed alongsideintegrating renewable energy systems.

 Direct gainTheproposed K block building will be incorporating a direct gain system using thesouth facing glazing on the second floor so that the living space is used as asolar collector, heat absorber and supply system. The south facing glazing willadmit solar energy into the K block where it carries directly and indirectlythermal mass materials in the building such as the masonry floor and wall. Thisdirect gain system will consume 60-70% of the sun’s energy that will reach theglazing. The thermal mass walls and floors will absorb solar radiationthroughout the day and discharges the heat energy throughout the evening intothe living area.The solar passive heating system via indirect gain, the thermalmass is will be situated between the living space and the sun. This method willallow the sunlight that reaches the thermal mass to incorporate and release itto the living space through transmission. This system will consume 30-40% ofthe sun’s energy that reaches the glazing and windows attached to the thermalmass.

 Ventilation and heatingA number of ventilation and heating strategies were usedwithin the building. These strategies were considered based on the energyefficiency they allow the K block to gain. Natural VentilationThe proposed K block building will be both mechanically andnaturally ventilated. The natural ventilation will be created by serving ventsin the higher level of K block. Trees will be imbedded besides the K block todeliver shade for cooler air so that it can be transmitted via vents at theground level of the building. This will allow the warm air to rise throughconduction and release to the external open-air through the vents in the higherlevel of K block. Casement windows will be installed around the K block toachieve the best possible airflow around the building.

To achieve the most effective ventilation, windows will notbe placed exactly opposite each other, but rather place them in differentopenings. This method is known as cross ventilation (AutodeskSustainability Workshop., n.d.). Cross ventilation will allow theair to mix and distribute cooling and fresh air throughout the entire roombetter.

TheK block building will place larger openings on the sheltered sides of thebuilding that the windward is positioned. The K block will insert inlets wherethe pressure zones are much higher and the outlets will be positioned at alower pressure zone. Ventilation will be much greater within the building ifthis method is introduced during construction (Autodesk Sustainability Workshop., n.d.).

Ascooler air sinks lower and hot air rises, it is more beneficial to place inletslow in the room and openings higher up in the room. Rooms in the K block willbe cooled down more efficiently (Autodesk Sustainability Workshop., n.d.).

In order to achieve the best outcome of ventilation aroundthe building, there are multiple strategies and ways to enhance the quality ofventilation. The following methods will help achieve that goal.·        Installing casement windows instead of doublehung windows as they operate well and provide better rain protection.·        Rooms that have one window, two expandedwindows will be installed instead of one.·        The south-facing side of the building will havepractical windows installed. MechanicalVentilationThe Lo-Carbon T-Series Panel ventilation are mounted in theinternal partitions and through the external walls.

The System will operateautomatically on both extract and intake. They work best within the design dueto the angles they can be mounted in. The Lo-Carbon T-Series also providesnatural ventilation within the building using the fan motor switch which setsthe shutter open when switched off. This system works best for the building asthe system still works and provides ventilation without the security risk of anopen window. Whereas the passive ventilation works as a natural ventilationsystem using different strategies, including cross ventilation, buoyancy andventure effect, which is warm air rising and wind passing over the terminalscausing suction. Heating Weather compensation controls is a strategy that will be used to heatthe K block.  The weather compensationcontrols will allow the boiling within the plant room to perform at its best.The operative flow temperatures inside the K block will change via the weathercompensation controls that will assist the boiler to do so.

  This method of heating will work effectivelyas the weather compensation controls can work on a regularly without the use ofany on-off controls. The flow temperature will adjust based on the temperatureinside the building and the weather temperature The weather compensation controls will have two sensors, one placedoutside and the second inserted in the boiler, that allow to adjust thetemperature by transferring the temperatures from one sensor to the other.  This strategy will be very effective andbeneficial as it will help to save energy via the sensors being able toestablish if further heating inside the building is needed or not.  Solar panelsTo make valuable use of the large roof space, the aspect ofhaving solar photovoltaic panels and solar heating panels attached to the roofis considered. The goal is to reduce the environmental impacts, the newlyconstructed K block building will, by considering renewable energy systems thatwill help to achieve that goal.Solar photovoltaic panels Installing PV panelsonto the roof will deliver energy that does not cause any harm to theenvironment or contain any dangerous greenhouse gas emissions. Although PVpanels are quite costly, they do provide energy at no cost in return. Thismethod will allow the K block to save money and energy.

The reason why they arean efficient source of energy is due to the solar energy that is availablealmost wherever there is sunlight. By placing the PV panels on the southexposure of the K block, this will allow for as much sunlight to be absorbedand transferred into electricity. Other sources of renewable energy systems were considered,such as wind turbines. However, solar photovoltaic panels are currently thebest option for the K block as they have no mechanically moving parts, onlywhen the mechanical bases need to track the sun. The movement limitation showsthat they have far less breakage which is a vital factor as it could result infinancing the damages if that occurred.

PV panels require less maintenance and the operational andmaintenance costs are lower in comparison to other renewable energy systems,such as wind turbines. An additional aspect that is important is the noiselevel of the systems that would be installed. The solar photovoltaic panelsproduce no noise and are completely silent. As well as the University campusitself, there are currently residential areas, including the studentaccommodation, which had to be considered due to any potential noise level.

ThePV panels will be the perfect solution (Green, 2012).  Solar Heating PanelsAs there is such a large roof space for the proposed K blockrenovated construction, there will be enough space to install both solarphotovoltaic panels to generate electricity and solar heating panels. The solarheating panels will not only provide an energy efficient way to heat the Kblock, but provide hot water.

 Like solarphotovoltaic panels, solar heating panels is an efficient and inexpensivesource of energy.  The solar heatingpanels will help turn approximately 80% into heat energy even when there isn’tany visible or direct sunlight (Morley, 2015).  Rainwater harvestingBasedon the location, the UK has lots of rain and water collected and filtered fromrainwater harvesting is a valuable resource that can be re-used in place ofmains water. A sustainable development, such as rainwater harvesting, arecontinuously incorporated in the standard specification of a new building. Theconcept of rainwater harvesting is very simple, hence why it is becoming thepreferred and essential method for new buildings.

The way the rainwater will becollected is through the sloped roof, which will then be stored on site. Oncethe rainwater has been stored, it will then be filtered and re-used throughoutthe entire K block. The filtered rainwater will only be for uses such as urinalflushing and fire sprinklers. Rainwater harvesting will help to cut down themains water consumption, and potentially reduce the environmental impact. Therainwater will be collected through a storage tank, placed below-ground besidesthe K block, and a non-pressurised system. The storage tank will have anincorporated filter for the rainwater to pass through and eliminate any largefragments such as leaves. Any excess rainwater will flow out of an overflowusing a one-way valve.

Thereare sensors and a under water pump present within the tank, which gather waterfrom the cleanest part of the tank via floating suction filter. The filteredrainwater is then supplied to the break tank (Stormsaver, 2016).   Design conceptsThe redevelopment of the K block building is surrounded bynature so it is important to give the building the appropriate appearance.

Thebuilding itself must compliment the hillside that will surround the building.The choice of building materials and design concepts have been chosen based onthe surroundings, embodied energy, maintenance and sustainability. The proposedmaterials that are chosen for the K block building will possess factors thatmake them the most fitting.  Building’s Façade Due tothe weathering, the proposed materials for the project will require minimalmaintenance. As well as maintenance, the materials must be able to withstanddeterioration so that the appearance does not change severely over time. Thechoice of the appropriate and sustainable material will show great results incost and the environment. To choose the right material, the embodied energy thematerial possesses must be examined first. Timber cladding Timbercladding offered the best solution in regards to choosing the appropriate appearancethat will also compliment the hillside.

The use of a sustainable material suchas timber cladding will allow the K block to appear captivating within thePontypridd campus.Thetimber must be first treated before it is used to avoid issues relating todeterioration. The choice of timber will be of a high-density panel. The panelwill be fabricated from natural timber that will then be treated with resins.

Once the panels have been treated, they will be set under high temperature andhigh pressure to allow the panels to resist high UV radiation and weatheringcauses.  The panels will be used for theexterior wall cladding.  To use the rightsized panels, they will be cut so that they can build a detailed verticalallying effect. Two different types of timber panels will be used to create acontrast between the materials. BrickAn additional aim of the facade management isto diminish the mass of the buildings. In order to achieve that goal, theintegration of a second proposed material would suggest a solution.

Thematerial that would work well and that possesses low embodied energy is brick.The choice of brick will favour the timber panels and present a texturalcontrast between the materials. The proposition of recycled brick will assist theK block in achieving a low embodied energy as the recycled brick are alreadymade so no raw materials will be needed.Exteriorglass wall Parts of the south-facing exterior walls will use anexterior glass wall instead of timber cladding.

The large glazed panels willallow as much natural lighting to enter some parts of the K block. This methodwill reduce the use of using artificial lighting and save energy in theprocess.  The exhibition space, 2 officesand cafeteria will gain the most natural lighting from this system. In order todecrease the amount of short wave radiation that will travel through the glass,a solar coating will be applied to the inner face of the outer glass panel ofan insulated glass unit (IQ Glass, n.d.).    

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