Grasshopper® which isintegrated with Rhino’s 3-D modeling tools is a graphical algorithm editor fordesigners exploring various shapes by using generative algorithms (Grasshopper® software2007). with its algorithmic capabilities, Grasshopperenables the creation of utilities that go beyond the common palette of commandsof Rhino.
In this research, in order to explore the energy usage and daylight,the Ladybug and Honeybee were utilized which are an open source environmental plug-in forGrasshopper-3D. These plug-ins import standard Energy Plus Weather files (EPW),Radiance, Daysim and Open Studio into Grasshopper and provides a variety of 3Dinteractive graphics to support the decision-making process during the initialstages of design (Ladybug plugin 2012). The optimizationprocess was carried out by Octopus which is a plug-in for applying evolutionaryprinciples to parametric design andproblem solving (Octopus plugin 2012).2.3Pre-settings for simulations2.3.1Geographic location, climateTabriz has a semi-arid climate with regular seasons (Köppen BSk).
The annual precipitation is around 280 millimeters, a gooddeal of which falls as snow during the winter months and rain in spring and autumn. Tabriz City is located at(38°04’48” N, 46°17’30” E). averaged value of sunshine is 2616.9 hrs(January2000- December 2016)and averaged value of frost days (Every day in a year with the lowest temperature belowfreezing level (0°C / 32 °F) is 81.8 days (Weatheronline 2016).2.
3.2 Building geometryIn this paper in order to explore the capabilities of the proposed approach, Tabrizmunicipality office building was selected, whichis set at a north-south orientation, and it is a rectangle-shaped officebuilding including 6 floors plus adome which was not evaluated in the process of this research. The three-dimensional view and plan of the buildingmodel are shown in Fig. 1. each floor is divided into 18 perimeter zones andone core zone.
The typical floors (from 1 to 5) are simulated with onerepresentative floor and is multiplied to represent other typical floors. Theapproach for performing the simulations includes the fenestration analysis inorder to determine the optimal fenestration due to the energy efficiency of thebuilding. In this process, theevaluation of fenestration was performed separately for each zone. Each modeledzone is adjacent to the facade to assess the annualthermal and lighting conditions produced by the facade region.
The plan ofzones N2 and N3 at floor 5th are resized, so simulations for thesetwo zones have done separately.The first phase of the process consists of modelingthe building and the zone/s that will be simulated. This phase is subdivided intwo different parts: modeling the geometry of the building, modeling thefenestration patterns. For the case study, the basic floor plate of thebuilding was modeled in the form of a polyline and was extruded in order toobtain the 3D model of the building.
The parameters that were used to model thebuilding and its zones were the orientation,number of floors, floor-to-floor height, thickness of the roof structure, androoms (zones). The parameters for simulating windows were window to wall ratio, windowheight, number of windows and sill height which were modeled by honeybeeglazing components.