Energy 2003 & Sasikumar, 2013). Grid connection and

Energy is considered as abackbone of any economy and plays a vital role in social and economicdevelopment process of a country. In today’s modern era, Sustainabledevelopment cannot be achieved without entrance to energy. It is to be notedthat energy utilization increases with the level of development (Lesourd,2001). As access to contemporary energy is fundamental for human development,it provides substantial improvements to be made in provision of energy topeople and for meeting sustainable development goals (SDGs) andalso promote the living standard of the people (Perkins etal., 2014).

For sustainabledevelopment, provision of energy at affordable cost is very important. Energyprovision should coincide with the social and economic needs of people. Theabsence of sustainable energy sources, to the contrary can hamper economicdevelopment. Sustainable development could also be inhibited by modes of energygeneration which leads to environmental (UNDESA,2001& UNDP, et al.

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2000).Additionally, electrification of regions by way ofrenewable energy also addresses the global concern concerning major climaticchanges in way of deducting of CO2 emissions (Edenhofer et al., 2011).Renewable energy has been at thefocal point of consideration since a decade ago for satisfaction of energydemand, as any normal way to deal with the use of energy has two significantdifficulties i.e., finding suitable substitutes for declining fossil fuelsources and connecting energy creation to ecological and environmental objectives.

Sunlight based energy is a clean renewable source of energy and is consideredespecially appropriate for villages where demand for power is very low (Maurya et al., 2013). While fossil fuels reduces with utilization and are viewed asundesirable from long period point of view. Charge of villages by off-frameworksun powered boards is economically more attainable than arrangement throughextension of national network. (URT-MEM,2003 & Sasikumar, 2013). Gridconnection and grid expansion to ruralareas where population is little and groups they settled at sizeable distances,cost of setting down electric power framework is extremely high. That’s why the concept of off- grid PV solartechnology is considered one of the most feasible and reasonable alternatechoice for electrification of rural areas. Inspite of the fact that the up-front initial instalment cost of solarphotovoltaic systems is very high yet being decentralized and off-grid, solarenergy is free of different expenses of input fuel later on.

The concernedauthorities in Pakistan could effectively avoid the transmission anddistribution costs in the provinces of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Sindh andBaluchistan, and the Thar Desert therefore they are particularly suited for theusage of solar energy through photovoltaic technology (Khan et al., 2014). These days there is a growing trend of Sun light based Home System,especially in those countries, where an expansive number of rural areas andfamilies are as yet deprived of the basic facility of energy. Off-gridsolar energy is free of issues, for example, line losses and electricityrobbery due to not having a long power transmission and distributionlines.  (Singh et al, 2009). Pakistan is a country which hasenormous potential for renewable energy.

It is in one of the highest solarinsulation of the world. Pakistan has the bigger and probably grid-scalepotential of Wind and solar energy production. Being in the sunny belt,Pakistan has potential for more than 100,000 MW emerging from solar energyalone. The mean global irradiation falling on the horizontal surface inPakistan is around 200–250 watt per square meter a day, with around 1500–3000sunlight hours in a year. Therefore, under the current conditions, Pakistan isviewed as perfect for solar energy applications (Khan et al., 2014). Photovoltaic technology whichbasically changes over sun energy into electrical is the most ideal approach touse solar energy.

This innovation is pre-famously suited for areas with smallpower necessities and remote area applications. The Photo Voltaic (PV) Sunpowered innovation can be of specific incentive to rural territories if it fulfilswith the demand of energy. Solar electrification in rural areas helped inraising expectations for everyday comforts and can change the lives ofindividuals, enhance wellbeing and education and availability of income from savings that is now usedfor health care services. In addition solar security light will lead to lowerincidence of crimes while and Solarelectrification also helped in increasing agricultural andindustrial productivity, raising  theemployment rate which lead to increased income and lower poverty rate and can result to socio-economic development (GNESD, 2007& Zilles, 2007). Currently,Pakistan electricity demand remained at around 19,405MWin respect to its existing creation of around 13,575MW(Times of Islamabad, 2017). Electricityshortage remains at 5,830 MW in flaming summers. Because of this tremendous gap, individualshave to face 12 to 20 hours of load sheddingon daily routine in rural areas of Pakistan. There are other three primary energy resources ofPakistan such as Hydro, oil, and natural gas which are utilized toaccomplish the energy demands of the economy but unfortunately their shortagebadly affected the education; health, agricultural and industrial production;information Technology sector, higher the electricity prices, increasedunemployment rate, decline trade activities, increase poverty rate and lowereconomic growth of Pakistan.

Under the UNDP funded “Peace and Advancement Program”, anaction was taken by the organization to infrastructure solar panels on  the top of houses of mosques, schools, educationalinstitutes from where energy was givento water pumps, water springs and road lights in KPK. Across 200villages, 200 watt solar panelswere distributed among 5,800 off network (grid) homes. Thisaction taken by UNDP was moreover extensive by provincial government of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa when the arrangement”Green Growth Initiative”was begun in 2014. Closely 450 public schools were also associated with solarpanels (Dawn, 2015& Tribune, 2016). The steps taken by UNDP and governmentof Khyber Pakhtunkhwa made demand among the regular citizens for the Sun basedPV innovation. As a result of this alertness, an expansive number ofindividuals installed solarpanels at their own cost for fulfilling of their energy requirements. Numerous villages now a day’s take advantages by PV solarinnovation as Photovoltaic solar energy furnishes the general population with best substitute for energyconsumption. In 2015, Sector wise Energy consumption by industries is 43%,transportation is 29%, domestic is 20%, commercial is 4%, agriculture is 2% andother government sector is 2%.

In 2015, Pakistan’scurrent energy mix depends on 68 percent thermal energy, nuclear energy andhydro energy and only 32 percent from renewable resources like solar and wind.In 2017, Pakistan electricity generation by sources is 35.2% by oil, 29.9% byhydel, 29% by natural gas, 5.8% by nuclear and 0.

1% by solar. In 2017, Sector wiseElectricity consumption by domestic is 50%, industries is 26%, agriculture is10%, commercial is 8% and other government sector is 6% (PakistanEnergy year book, 2015, 2017).The followings are the factors i.e., price, income (per capitaincome), education qualification, availability of electronic goods , sustainability, load shedding, levelof knowledge and awareness, pollution, No. of substitutes available, weatheretc which determines the  adoptionof solar energy. Sustainability is a broad concept which is mostly defined asserving the needs of the present without compromising the capacity of upcominggenerations to fulfil their own needs and cause no environmental damages.Thepositive effects of solar energy on national economy are that the solar energyis very cost efficient.

The initial cost of solar panel installation is highthen after solar energy can be formed at almost running cost. This high costseems to be a wise investment for future and can save ones money in the longrun by giving low grid electric bills. By utilizing more solar innovation, thecountry’s import oil bills will be decreases and will decline the circulardebt, which is the greatest burden on the economy. This solar electricity helpin increasing the education level of people by providing light at night andalso improve health condition of people by providing the solar energyfacilities in hospitals. Solar energy system can created a thousands of jobs atdifferent levels i.e., from makers to the installer.

Thus, in this modern era,due to all these impacts the country’s economy socially and economically bothwill boost up. Some of negative impacts on economy are that initial cost ofsolar energy infrastructure is very high and is expensive which is notaffordable by the poor residents. On cloudy day, the output of solar panelsfluctuates due to which the solar based electrical devices would be burns. Forstorage of solar energy an acidic batteries will be use but this storage is onsmall scale and cannot use for all night and is also too costly and risky.There is no big market for solar energy like other resources of energy, due tothis lack of market the US government cannot provides incentives. The life timeof solar panel is warranty for about 4 to 5 years. (Matias, 2014).1.

2. PROBLEMSTATEMENTCurrently, Pakistan is facing severe energy crisisdue to high demand for energy, high cost of energy import, high theft rate andline loss, low generation rate and terrorism, scarcity of water, highpopulation growth, defective government policies& political hurdles etc. In addition, energy crisis has, generally,suffered all sectors of Pakistan’s system ranging from economy to industry,agriculture to social life, inflation to poverty and it is hampering nationalprogress in an unexpected way. The utilization of coal and oil is thought to beone of the primary sources of air pollution and deforestation which causesserious health problems.

Unbalanced priorities, poor management, imperfectionin markets, lack of accountability and ill utilizations of domestic resourcesetc can be meant as the reasons for deficiency of energy in Pakistan. Pakistanwastes a ton of energy, around 15 to 20 percent through poor distributionstructure. Load shedding has grows to be aregular reality in Pakistan. Todefeat these problems one needs to use alternative energy resources. Other thancoal and different energizes, the Renewable Energy (RE) assolar energy has gateway to our problems. Inactuality, Renewable Energy (RE) is a perfect, green and never-ending source ofenergy discovered everywhere throughout the globe (Awan, 2011).Pakistan requires a persistentlong-term move toward Renewable Energy (RE) to meet rising demand, as itsdependence on usual fuels can be limited just by building a strong RE base. Butfor growing Renewable Energy base, it is vital to know whether the Renewableenergy technologies, for example, solar electrification, is sustainable or not.

This study will make an effort to evaluate the sustainability of solarelectrification and also find out the factors of solar technology in villageRegi, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Investigation of sustainability issuesinterrelated to off-grid solar electrification in rural areas will help infilling the prevailing energy access gap. 1.2. RESEARCH QUESTIONSThis study will beguided by the following research questions:-How do the level ofincome of households, load shedding and weather influence the adoption of solartechnology? To what the extent does the price and availability of substitutepower source influence the use of solar technology in village Regi?  How does the price of solar technology, levelof income of households, level of knowledge and awareness of solar technology,durability of solar technology and pollution influence the sustainability of solar technology in villageRegi?1.3  . OBJECTIVE OF THE STUDYTheobjective of the study is to find out the prevalence solarelectrification explores the factors andsustainability of solar power.

Inlight of this, it seeks to·        To find out theinfluence of level of income of households, load shedding and weather onadoption of solar technology.·        To analyze the effectof the price and availability of substitute power source on the use of solartechnology.·        To evaluate the effectof price of solar technology on sustainabilityof solar technology.·        To explore theinfluence of level of income of households, level of knowledge and awareness ofsolar technology, durability of solar technology and pollution on sustainability of solar technology.1.

4.HYPOTHESIS OF THE STUDY·        There is negative effect of levelof income of households, load shedding and the weatheron the adoption of solar technology.·        The priceof solar technology and availability of substitute power source have positiveeffect on the use of solar technology.

·        There is positive effect of priceof solar technology on the sustainability of solar technology.·        Thelevels of income of households, level of knowledge and awareness of solar technology,durability of solar technology and pollution have negativeeffect on sustainability of solar technology.1.5.SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDYPakistanfaces enormousenergylimitations and extreme climatic changes which have led to long hours of loadshedding in the country. Extension of renewable energyinfrastructure in the country, as solar electrificationof villages can be one path for fulfilling the double goal of meeting rural demandfor energy and also creating a path towards investment in clean and perfectenergy. Solar energy can transform the quality of life of people by increasingincome, improve health by reducing the air pollution and improve education andcan lead to socio-economic development.

There are varioussignificances consider with in this study. As a matter of first significancethe study demonstrates that how Photovoltaic solar energy Project instalment invillage Regi has so far benefited its general population and the community atlarge. And also, the finding of this study will demonstrates the status andsense of acceptance of the solar energy project installed in the village Regiand moreover, also demonstrate how the factors affect the adoption of solarelectrification. 

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