End medical end of life decisions are

                                                         End of Life Issues

of the life issues is at times referred to mainly as the death as well as dying
or the terminal care. Planning usually involves making choices about the goals
of care, place, treatment when having end of life care. The dying people
usually make choices about legal decisions about wills, power of attorneys and
advanced directives.

End of life care is
deficient in many countries. To date only a few states have put in place
legislation to help terminally ill patients. Most people die in pain and in
isolation in places where terminal care is not provided.

In various statistics, it
shows that white people are more likely to seek end of life care as compared to
Hispanic and Black people. Women are usually more likely to have provided
palliative care over their lifetimes. Many people choose death in their homes
or in a good hospice instead of a hospital.

Therefore, the aim of the
society should be to reduce the needs of terminally ill patients to have to be
admitted in the hospitals, improve palliative care, and improve provision for
support from the community. In 2015, and 2010 United Kingdom ranked highest
globally in end of life care. This is because the country has comprehensive
national policies, deep community engagement on the issue, a strong hospice
movement and integration of palliative care into the national health system.

Most times family members
suffer emotionally due to their own fear of death. They are uncertain at times,
with what or how they can help there dying family member. Over the years, the
percentage of patients who make an end of life decisions has increased

The medical end of life
decisions are indeed very challenging for dying people and their families. The
system has its own set of primary rules that might or not agree to the dying
persons or the family values.

arising within the topic

of life care has so many challenges in pain and suffering management for clinicians,
patients and their families.  The care
must get considered mainly within the given frames of physical, psychological
as well as the social experiences within a person’s life. The people who mostly
need a lot of care are the elderly, who are likely to be lonely, usually do not
report pain and their sensitivity to drugs is higher to others.

The clinicians responsible
for treatment of patients might not be well trained. The fear of pain usually
drives patients to end of life decision. Most people view end of life as
freedom from pain.


Withdrawing and
withholding interventions.

involves life-sustaining treatment.  It
is acceptable to withdraw care that the patient does not want. The physician is
allowed to decide when the intervention is to be withdrawn or withheld.  Each medical condition has its own principles
on withdrawing or withholding of the medical interventions.

Spiritual issues and end
of life care

Spiritual beliefs are
central to a patient during this time. Patients at the end of life usually
experience a high spiritual growth. The physicians ought to be informed of the
importance of religion and facilities required for the patient’s spiritual

The integrity of

The physician should not
violate any ethical rules or the beliefs of the patient when requesting for end
of life care. If they both do not agree, the patient should seek another
physician’s service.

Pain management

It is ethically accepted
for physicians to administer higher doses of narcotic analgesics in terminally
ill people to manage the pain. Traditionally the medication was not been
administered as the physicians feared it hastened their death. The physicians
assume that the patient is aware of the unintended consequence of administering
the drug.

Medical futility

This refers to an
intervention that is more than 99% ineffective. Conflicts usually arise when
the patients lose decision-making capabilities and their lives lie in the hands
of a chosen decision maker.  This may due
to the decision maker not understanding the prognosis or even the loss of trust
in the medical system.  However, the
conflicts are usually solved through education and encouraging a team approach
to making the decision or involving a clergyman.


This surrounds the
physician actions in the way to end a patient’s life by prescribing a lethal medication.
This is only legal in Oregon in United States. Patients may request this
treatment due to pain, depression or even fear of being a burden to their loved


families deplete their finances while caring for a dying family member. They
are therefore encouraged to seek professional caregivers help to make the pain
tolerable. They should talk openly with the physician about the costs so that
they can reach a reasonable agreement and plan.

The family should also
plan for the dying person estate. They may seek legal help in dealing with the
financial or legal concerns. Planning makes it easier for the terminally ill
person to sign any documents needed and prevents family battles in courts for
the estates.


pro is that a terminally ill person has a right to avoid excruciating pain and
such a decision surrounds the patient’s personal autonomy and his or her bodily
integrity. The court allows a terminally ill person to end suffering by ending
his or her own life.

The ethical argument is
that a dying person who is mentally competent is capable to exercise their own
will over their lives. After meeting the legal requirements, the person should
take the prescribed lethal medication to end their lives.

The argument is that
without a change, terminally ill people will suffer against their wishes and
continue to make decisions without the necessary advice from the doctors. End
of life care should be of quality to ensure dignity of the dying patient.

Some medical
professionals argue that even with the best palliative care some terminally ill
patients will still want assisted dying. This care reduces terminal pain but is
not always a total relief to the patients’ disease. Statistics show that
80%-89% of patients in hospice care have died through assisted suicide. A wide
population also favors the assisted dying.as a result the physicians support
the argument.



arguments against is that advances in the hospice care reduces the chances of a
dying person in feeling that they are in intolerable pain. Another argument is
that the elderly may feel like they are a burden to their loved ones.

Others look at it as a
way to widen rules surrounding euthanasia and assisted suicide. This may damage
the relationship between doctors and patients as doctors may instead end
patients’ lives rather than preserve it.

Some argue that it does
not safeguard the patients’ lives against unnecessary deaths. The physician may
misdiagnose the patient misleading him or her to choose assisted suicide.
Instead of helping them kill themselves, the society should increase the
availability of hospital care.



end of life care is deemed as a topic many people find uncomfortable to talk
about it. The issue has sparked emotional and political atmosphere for over a
century. It has been argued that mainly the given right to die should also be
protected within the constitution to safeguards the rights such as marriage
while some argue the doctors have an ethical responsibility to keep patients
alive under any circumstances.

The debate surrounds the
argument that legalization of assisted suicide unfairly targets the poor and
the disabled. It also creates a way for the insurance companies to end lives in
an effort to save money.

 Currently the only states in America that have
legalized medical assisted death is Oregon, California, Washington, and
Vermont. Some individuals relocate to these states in order to end their lives

The topic has gained
increased attention in recent years and has been amendments in the legislation.
In 2015, Britain Member of Parliaments voted against the legislation of
assisted dying. The bill would have made it possible for those said to have
less than six months to live.

Countries that have allowed
assisted dying includes Netherlands, Some parts of the United States,
Switzerland, and Germany. Belgium has only legalized voluntary euthanasia and
legally assisted suicide to terminally ill children beyond medical help



I think the issues
surrounding end of life are heavy and the society needs to address them.  The doctors should do everything possible to
save a patient’s life under any circumstances. They should not assist the
patients to die.

The society should focus
on solutions such as increased medical care centers to treat and monitor the
terminally ill patients. In my opinion, I would not seek euthanasia or any
medically assisted death as I feel its contrary against my Christina believes. God
gives life and He should take it away on His will. Life is a gift from God and
it should not be prematurely shortened.

Legalizing assisted dying
in an ethical trap for the doctors. This is because the doctors are under
pressure to act on the patient’s request, which goes contrary to their moral,
believes. This also puts pressure on the people to end their lives prematurely.


I'm Mary!

Would you like to get a custom essay? How about receiving a customized one?

Check it out