“Effects Of Stress On Medical Students On Academic Success in Bolan medical Collage Quetta District.” Supervisor: MA’AM SHAKEELA Institute: SBK WOMEN UNIVERSITY Program: M.Phil.
DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION FACULTY OF SOCIAL SCIENCES SBK WOMENS UNIVERSITY QUETTA, BALOCHISTAN Session: 2018Table of content….TitleIntroductionReview of literatureObjectivesMethodologyDuration of the studySample sizeSampling techniqueData collection procedureData analysis procedure Data collection instrumentsReferences Chapter 1 INTRODUCTIONBackground of the Study: Stress is the subset of emotions. It is a general problem of all individuals. In present world every human in different situation experience stress. In simple words can say that stress become the part of every individual’s life. Stress evaluated as harmful for the body, especially for the memory. Stress also the cause of other serious disease. Due to the stress an individual life become full of quarrelsomely and go to the failure life.
Two types of stress are defined, one is the external stress which is related from social situations and the other is related internal stress, is about mental illness. Many experts considered stress as a normal physical response, but when it increases it become internecine. UNIHEALTH, presented new survey report which indicates that 82% initial stage students are experiencing stress and anxiety. Stress among medical students will become more border because of their schedule and courses.
Stress is very common problem among the medical students. The students faced a lot of problems during their study program such as, the burden of books, parental pressures and the stress due to overcrowded hall. All these problems are the causes of student’s stress with that the students get depressed and that become cause of suicide at last. The cause of the stress is here not only internal stress it also ones from the situation pressure like the market demands, teacher favoritism etc. the stress of first year and second year students are more waste then the students of last year because they are unable to grip the all studies at once. This creates wrong situations for their exams and marks, for that they change their time table, sleep time, their dinner and lunch times and it also change the entire life of an individual. May these all are reasons directly affect student’s academic achievement.
The cause of stress can be the less time for preparation with that the students get burdened. The stress problem can be the lack of concepts, improper gaudiness, and fear of marks in result so, if the students get relaxed and learn without any fear so they will not fall into the stress. The students of Hostel get more into the stress problems due to their environment with wastage of time, far from house they found the food problem in the Hostel, so these problems may the cause of stress.
Collage is also responsible for the student’s stress because some students have financial problem, collage must check all these type issues and due to this often students fall into stress. The problem of the stress one not finalized, on the suicide cases the cause of stress is very wide that the students use the drugs when they got stressed. These drugs and suicide cases comes at the stage of depression. The students come from the rural areas faces more problem. Quetta is one of the educated city of Pakistan.
No doubt the Quetta’s students are capable, and God gifted. Stress is the common factor of every student’s life. The students stress levels are very different such as they face adjustment problem, meeting academic demands, marks issue in exams, lake confidence and so on. Many researchers indicate that Medical students face more stress as compare to school, college and university students. Medical learners face different challenges during their medical studies. Basically, the aim of current study to know about the Medical learner’s stress basic cause and its effect on their mental health. Present study will give new vision to the field of education and psychologist. The research will use the quantitative mode of inquiry and follow the descriptive research design.
The research will select the students from Bolan Medical College Quetta. Research will follow the snowball sampling.Statement of Problem: This study is conducting for identifying the cause of stress that effect the medical students learning and the role of teacher in student’s stress also find the impact of stress on student’s academic achievement.
Stress is the issue which do not facilitate effective learning in class room. Sometimes it leads to student’s defeat. Stress is harmful it gradually curtails the memory of Medical student. Due to stress they face barriers digesting the knowledge. The factors that create the problems for students are many more that cannot let the students for easy learning environment that all will become the reasons of all student’s mental illness.
Purpose of the study: The purpose of the study is to identify the causes of stress among Medical students of first prof and second prof and to find out the role of teacher in student’s stress problems that teachers are cooperating with the students in their learning or not present study will also investigate the impact of student’s stress on their academic achievement. Number of studies indicates that stress is the main reason of unsatisfactory performance of the medical learners. Further this study will explore the other factors too, which are the reason of stress and other affected areas of Medical students.Significance of the study: Medical students who are facing stress and it totally affect their memory which may leads to another serious factor. Current study will help students to get information about their level of stress. The primary aim of current research study is to furnish information to the readers that how stress effect individual performance, their lives etc. study will also beneficial and useful for the teachers to understand the need of Medical student, it will also provide wide information to Psychologists and for the students to avoid getting stress. Research Questions:What are the causes of stress that face Medical students during their Medical Education?What are the role of teacher in Medical student’s stress?What is the relationship of stress and academic achievement of Medical students?Research Objective:To identify the causes of stress in Medical students during their Medical Education.
To dig out the role of teacher producing stress in Medical students.To investigate the relationship of between stress and academic achievement of Medical students.Literature reviewStress is a natural mental and physical reaction to life experiences. Every person experiences stress in his life. Stress can affect body and mind.
It also affects learning and memory .Stress can be positive, but if it is chronic, it can be too dangerous. Stress is a situation that triggers particular biological response.
Stress reduce student’s self- esteem and may affect students’ academic achievement .Medical education being stressful brings many psychological changes in students. Medical students encounter multiple anxieties in transformation from in secure student to knowledgeable physician. It has been observed, that during medical training students experience a heighten level of stress their curriculum. Health problems stress and emotional changes occur during the medical education. It leads to cognitive distress and has negative impact on mental functioning and slows down learning process.
In most medical institutions, the environment it- self is highly pressurising .It encourages competition among students than co-operation. The majority of studies on stress on the cognitive learning of medical students focuses on documentation of stress and information on the correlation of stress. Students face stress not only during medical study period, but also internship and higher education period. The estimated prevalence of emotional changes was found in different study levels higher than common population.
In Thi medical school the prevalence of emotional stress was 61.4% in Malaysian medical college 41.9% and in three British medical universities, it was found 31.2%.Stress is likely to predict cognitive health problem.
But students seldom seek help to solve their health issues and want to get rid of physiological problems in Swedish medical data the prevalence of depuration among medical students was 12.9% and approximately 2.7% student committed suicide . It is very important for educator in medical institutions to acknowledge the prevalence and causes of student’s distress which affect their cognitive condition, academic success at different levels of study in medical institutions.
Medical education system has unique features, which make it different from other disciplines. Firstly, the selection of medical student is very complicated. Secondly, family influence, play a vital role to decide their career in medicine. This is quite different from western societies, where students can freely decide their career .There is no systematic review regarding the psychological issues focusing upon Bolan medical college student. Hence this systematic review is aimed to diagnose depression and stress among students in Bolan medical college Quetta. The data acquired regarding the medical students in their academic performance, examination, assessments, assignment and heavy work load were the most common reasons to promote stress .This is further reported by Ratna saipanish ,who studied on 686 medical students in Ramathibodi Hospital Thailand and showed that students’ academic performance is mainly affected by these issues.
The result shows that the prevalent source of academic stress was Exams /Assessment.Summerfield (1989) and LESKO found the remarkable positive correlation between the number of test /exam, and incident of illness .Similarly Greenberger (1987) found, that the prevalent academic was related to anxiety and depression in medical institution.A number of studies have revealed a correlation between stress and cognitive health and the poor academic performance Rieker; Clark (1986), Zeppa ; Linn 1984, Menec, Struthers and perry (2000).
Wilcox ; Felsten (1992) noticed a significant negative relationship between the stress level and the academic achievement of medical student. In a similar study Flaherty ; Blumberg (1985) found an inverse correlation between self reported stress level and academic performance .Struthers et al (2000) also reported a heightened level of academic stress was related with low grade in studies .Medical students experience high level academic stress due to assignments , exams /test , time pressure-uncertainty and time pressure .
In brief, it is concluded that, this stress has significant effect on the performance of student in medical colleges. Chapter 3 RESEARCH METHODOLOGYIntroduction: This chapter deals with methods of current study. This method has researcher choose for present study. Research methodology is the chapter in which researcher add all the necessary elements of research. This chapter will account the research design, theoretical framework the specific method which is selected for study and data collection.Duration of the study:Duration of the study will be one semester.
Research Type: This study will base on Quantitative in nature. Quantitative research is the research design which gives correct, trustworthy and reliable result. Quantitative research is an inquiry into social problems, explain phenomena by gathering numerical data that will analyze by using mathematical methods. Quantitative research involve quantity which shows validity of the result. Best and Khan stated that when any research base on numerical form, that type of research consists quantitative mode. On other hand quantitative research is the excellent way for those researchers who wants to find out causes and effects in their research. Quantitative research also deals with statistics, in this style research explains data through mathematical method. (Creswell.
John,2014). Design of the Study: Current study has chosen the survey research design, so data will be collect through a self-develop questionnaire. Survey is the very traditional method of conducting research which is particularly useful for descriptive designs. It is using to collect information or data medical education and the students stress. This is a crucial step and to complete all the assign tasks according to the method.
Population: The substantial number of individuals is known as population and population provides sample for the research. Population has two types, one is accessible population and second is target population. The present study population is call accessible population. Accessible population known as the study population. The students of first prof and second prof for the year 2017-2018 of Bolan Medical Collage Quetta are selected as the population for the study.
The purpose of this research is to see the impact of stress on Medical student’s learning.Number of students of first prof is …50..Number of students of second prof is…50……Sampling technique: In sampling technique students will be selected through simple random technique that help to decide the size of sample to make a numbered list of all students in the population. Simple random sampling means that every number of the sample is selected from group of population in such a manner that probability of being selected for all members in the study group of population is the same simple random sampling is also the most popular method for choosing a sample among population for a wide range of purposes.
Each number of population is equally likely to be chosen as a part of the sample. The size of more than a few hundred is required to be able to apply simple in an appropriate manner. Selecting samples is one of the main advantage of simple random technique. Instruments for Data Collection: Questionnaire is the paper of written questions, with the help of questionnaire researcher collect the data form population for the study. (Creswell,2014). Self-questionnaire will be the tool for data collection.
Present study will use close ended questionnaire. The questions in questionnaire will be divided into three categories. The categories will inter-related with each other. In first category the questions will about causes of stress, in second category the questions will be about the role the teacher and in the third category the questions will be about the impact of stress on academic success. Validity:Validity of the tool will be checked by pilot study in sampled students. Participants of the pilot study will not be the part of actual sample. Reliability:Reliability of data instruments will be checked by coach alpha.
Reliability has to do with quality of measurement.Procedure of Data Collection: The process of data collection will be completed by the researchers personally. The survey questionnaire will administer to the respondents randomly selected as sample for the study. The researcher asks the questions to the respondent and they will indicate their views by showing their agreement and disagreement.
Study Design: A cross sectional design is selected for the study design on a sample of Medical students. This design is used to Medical research. It is a type of observational study which analyze the data from population with the specific time. Data Analysis: Quantitative data analysis is a systematic approach to investigation during which numerical data is collected. The data that will collect through questionnaire will entered in the computer by using SPSS and analyzed statically, mean will serve the purpose of research question. The sample mean is the average and is computed as the sum of all observed outcomes from the sample divided by the total number of values. Summary: Current chapter presents the synopsis of the essential areas of the research. In this chapter researcher added all methods of research such as type of research, method of sampling teaching and sampling.
In the present chapter also add the plan and analysis of the data, collection of data and introduction to quantitative study. References….Roberts LW, Warner TD, Carter D, Frank E, Ganzini L, Lyketsos C, et al. Caring for medical students as patients: Access to services and care-seeking practices of 1,027 students at nine medical schools. Collaborative research group on medical student healthcare. Acad Med. 2000;75:272–7.
PubMedYusoff MS, Abdul Rahim AF, Yaacob MJ. Prevalence and sources of stress among Universiti Sains Malaysia Medical students. Malays J Med Sci. 2010;17:30–7.
PMC free article PubMedShaikh BT, Kahloon A, Kazmi M, Khalid H, Nawaz K, Khan N, et al. Students, stress and coping strategies: A case of Pakistani medical school. Educ Health (Abingdon) 2004;17:346–53. PubMedSaipanish R. Stress among medical students in a thai medical school. Med Teach. 2003;25:502–6.
PubMedRadcliffe C, Lester H. Perceived stress during undergraduate medical training: A qualitative study. Med Educ.
2003;37:32–8. PubMedFirth J. Levels and sources of stress in medical students.
Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1986;292:1177–80.PMC free article PubMedPanchu P, Bahuleyan B, Vijayan V. An analysis of the factors leading to stress in Indian medical students. Int J Clin Exp Physiol.
2017;4:48–50.Abraham R, Mahirah Binti Zulkifli E, Soh E, Fan Z, Ning Xin G, Tan J, et al. A Report on Stress among First Year Students in an Indian Medical School.
2017Iqbal S, Gupta S, Venkatarao E. Stress, anxiety and depression among medical undergraduate students and their socio-demographic correlates. Indian J Med Res. 2015;141:354–7. PMC free article PubMedM. Andualem and M. Zeleke, “Khat (Catha edulis Forsk) chewing, socio-demographic description and its effect on academic performance, Jimma University students,” Ethiopian Medical Journal, vol.
42, no. 2, pp. 125–136, 2004. View at Google ScholarA.
Atalay, K. Dereje, and G. Kullgren, “The prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of khat chewing in Butajira, Ethiopia,” Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica. Supplementum, vol.
397, pp. 84–91, 1999. View at Google ScholarE. Eshetu and T. Gedif, “Prevalence of khat, cigarette and alcohol use among students of technology and pharmacy, Addis Ababa University,” Ethiopian Pharmaceutical Journal, vol. 24, no.
2, pp. 116–124, 2006.View at Publisher · View at Google ScholarAnuradha R, Dutta R, Raja JD, Sivaprakasam P, Patil AB. Stress and stressors among medical undergraduate students: A cross-sectional study in a private medical college in Tamil Nadu. Indian J Community Med.
2017;42:222–5. PMC free article PubMedNandi M, Hazra A, Sarkar S, Mondal R, Ghosal MK. Stress and its risk factors in medical students: An observational study from a medical college in India. Indian J Med Sci. 2012;66:1–2. PubMedSupe AN. A study of stress in medical students at seth G.S.
medical college. J Postgrad Med. 1998;44:1–6.
PubMedKumar GS, Jain A, Hegde S. Prevalence of depression and its associated factors using beck depression inventory among students of a medical college in Karnataka. Indian J Psychiatry.
2012;54:223–6.PMC free article PubMedDahlin M, Joneborg N, Runeson B. Stress and depression among medical students: A cross-sectional study. Med Educ. 2005;39:594–604.
PubMedPowis D, Hamilton J, McManus IC. Widening access by changing the criteria for selecting medical students. Teach Teach Educ. 2007;23:1235–45.B. Mannapur, A.
S. Dorle, L. D. Hiremath, C. H. Ghattargi, U. Ramadurg, and K.
R. Kulkarni, “A study of psychological stress in undergraduate medical students at SN Medical College, Bagalkot, Karnataka,” Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 2869–2874, 2010. View at Google Scholar ·View at ScopusJ. M.
Rosenthal and S. Okie, “White coat, mood indigo—depression in medical school,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 353, no.
11, pp. 1085–1088, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar ·View at ScopusG. Tchen, A. Carter, P.
Gibbons, and P. McLaughlin, “What is the relationship between indicators of stress and academic performance in first year university students? A prospective study,” Journal of Institutional Retrieve, vol. 40, no.
3, pp. 463–473, 2001. View at Google Scholar. Guthrie EA, Black D, Shaw CM, Hamilton J, Creed FH, Tomeson B.
Embarking upon a medical career: psychological morbidity in first year medical students. Medical Education 1995; 29: 337 -341. 5. Tomorrow’s Doctor (2001) General Medical Council.