EFFECT OF STEM CELL THERAPY IN HEART FAIILURE
Cardiovascular diseases are regarded as the leading killer worldwide. As estimated that there are more than 8 million adults diagnosed with heart failure and is projected to rise by 46% by 2030 . Cardiovascular medicine has advanced progressively to find solutions to various heart related diseases. Different method and strategies has been put forward to test clinical relevance. One of the recent finding is by using regenerative stem cells which have the potential to repair dysfunctional substrates. This therapy uses the cells derived from bone marrow that have the potential to differentiate and grow into specialized cell type. When stem cells receive chemical indicators, they possess ability to migrate to infected area and transform to specialized needed cells . Stem cells can be classified as Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) when stem cells are taken from embryos and if it is taken from adults it is called as Adult stem cells. After the breakthrough of stem cell therapy there was a major reduction in cardiovascular failures between mid-20th century and turn of millennium .
The Significance to stem cell therapy is that many alternative ways such as heart transplant ensured great quality of life but unfortunately this has turned into inconsequential therapy due to low number of donor hearts. Early phase of technology considered heart as terminally differentiated organ, unable to regenerate new cardiomyocytes. Carbon dating revealed that 1% of cardiomyocytes are replaced each year, and approximately 40% of the myocytes in a mature human heart are of postnatal origin.3 This finding gave an idea to insert regenerative cells into heart. In order to bring full awareness to the knowledge more than 3000 patients were enrolled in clinical trials3 .However, results from these clinical studies have been largely disappointing because inconsistent improvement in symptoms but was informative too. Most importantly this therapy has been shown to be feasible and safe . There is no exact evidence to show true regeneration of cells it is believed as the consequences of paracrine effects like release of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors.3 These clinical lessons are important because it gives a precise idea about stem cell therapy. For some patient traditional methods are found to be effective than stem cell therapy and outcomes have been conflicting . Goal of the research is to draw conclusion between positive and negative aspects of regenerative therapy used in todays modern world.
The research revolves around some main research questions like
1.What are advantages and disadvantages of using stem cells during heart failure?
To know about the feasibility of the stem cell therapy and also pros and cons of the treatment
2. How far is this method used in today’s modern world ?
To know to what extend the this therapy is successful and also which all occasions we can apply this method .
3. Comparison between traditional heart treatments and stem cell therapy
INCLUSION CRITERIA :
In order to find out the two sides of stem cell therapy , the research essay includes the different cases of heart diseases like coronary bypass surgery and ischemic heart and the review of how was stem cell therapy was useful in these cases . The essay also includes the review of all patients who have had done this surgery and also the review from institutions who had performed this surgery. Some reported clinical trials conducted by other researches are also included to get the impact of stem cell therapy in these patients . The comparisons have been made by drawing the conclusion from various valid data collected by institutions .
FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS:
Stem cell therapy has established its space in the field of modern medicine . It turns out wonder to know how our own cells help to repair damaged cells within us. It was reported by Professor David Newby, of the British Heart Foundation Centre of Research Excellence at the University of Edinburgh that stem cell therapy is a potential life saving therapy for greater number of patients post to heart attacks. The clinical trials were conducted to investigate the effect of pre-treatment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with growth factors (GFs) on cardiomyogenic differentiation. This study concluded that pre-treatment of MSCs with growth factors improved the clinical efficacy of MSC for myocardial repair. 6Another clinical trials for examining the efficacy of bone marrow mononuclear cell for patients with a
previous myocardial infarction (MI) and chronic heart failure during coronary artery bypass graft (CABG). It was then concluded that patients with myocardial infarction and chronic heart failure could potentially be benefited from mesenchymal cells . 7 From these clinical trails the knowledge can be acquired that on the scale of least disadvantages we can accept that stem cell therapy can be widely used . Moreover , the study of “C-CURE” trail of Cardiopoietic Stem Cell Therapy in Heart Failure for analyzing the patients with heart failure of ischemic origin who received standard of care or standard of care plus lineage-specified stem cells. reveled that Cardiopoietic stem cell therapy was found feasible and safe in chronic heart failure8. From these reviews it highlights the advantage part of stem cell therapy. However, like a two side of coin there are some hidden negative aspects . The main disadvantage that one can face is the rejection from self-body . If the stem cells are embryonic in origin, then there is high chance of rejection because it is not formed from own cells . Since stem cells are considered as foreign substances to body there can be adverse side effects like bleeding , anemia and liver damages . A study was conducted to look into adverse effects and it showed that regeneration of new cardiac stem cells is low but , the deep understanding of mechanisms can help to solve this solution . There has been a considerable improvement in knowing about stem cell properties , and there is also a need to understand specific mechanism of actions in order to maximize the benefits of stem cells . It has been criticized that stem cell therapy may actually worsen the heart The criticism was given by Prof .Leor 13that the stem cells may actually induce inflammation due to the gene that causes the stem cells to develop inflammatory properties.13
With the analysis of both sides , the positive effects overpower the negative effects . Since the most reported cases supports stem cell therapy it can be practiced with the caution and proper treatment.
The detailed understanding and analysis from the researches , provide a conclusion that stem cell therapy is actually is a great remedy for anyone who is at the last hope for the life . Stem cell therapy uses regenerative cells that can grow into specialized cardiac cells . This therapy is great as it causes least amount of damage to the patients . Contradicting the negative side , it is always better to screen whether the use of stem cells is accepted in the body.