Economic inequalitiesin advanced industrialised democracies over the past two decades have almostbeen entirely unassessed in empirical literature (Solt, 2008). Theoretical researchpredicts that economic inequality reduces political engagement for example, contributingin elections therefore affluent participants are more likely to be satisfiedwith democracy in the UK (Solt,2008). Rich participants are more likely to prevail in open conflicts and even preventissues from being publicly debated as they need to defend their interests fromthe challenges of poorer individuals.
Money is used to drown voices of poorercitizens who always find themselves unable to speak out about injusticestherefore discard of any preferences that will not be enacted (Solt, 2008). Patterns ofpolitical behaviour from young people has attracted attention (Henn and Foard,2013) as they isolate themselves from the formal politics of “old people.” Theirdecline in commitment suggests the political system is passive to youngpeople’s wants. Politics seems inaccessible and related to political elite whoengage in self-centred agendas. Pollock et al adds young people express high cumulativelevels of populist beliefs that could serve as uneasy to mainstream parties.
Youngerindividuals prefer to take part in less professional, less time consuming, politicalactivities for example, online forms and questionnaires therefore my researchhypothesis claims older participants are more likely to be satisfied withdemocracy in the country (Pilkington and Pollock, 2015). A survey intopolitical participation in Britain suggested that gender differences in votinghad become insignificant but men continued to prove more engaged in collective actssuch as party membership. Women were found to be less politicallyknowledgeable, interested and engaged in political discussions. Citizens who donot state their preferences are risked being ignored. Opinion polls stateattitudes of men and women differ on the appropriate levels of public spendingon health care, educational services and the military therefore there will begender difference with the levels of satisfaction with democracy due to thelack of equal participation and engagement (Norris, Lovenduski and Campbell,2004).
The 2010 ethnicminority British election study suggests that second generation citizens ofBlack Caribbean heritage claim that the British system has not treated them fairlyand feel there is still prejudice in the UK. BME groups comparatively attachless importance to the economy, crisis and immigration and claim for theprovision of equal opportunities (Ethnic Minority British Election Study – KeyFindings, 2018). A third of BME group’s report discrimination which are notshared in wider public debates or by any other main political parties in theirmanifestos. Muslims feel excluded and rejected with evidence of growing Islamophobia.Young Muslim men may feel less committed to British society which has allowedthem to lead separate lives from mainstream therefore be prone to radicalisation(Sanders et al., 2013). As a result, ethnic minorities are expected to be lesssatisfied with democracy in the country.
Theconservative party have pledged to recognise marriage in the tax system as asignal of recognition of the value made by people when they get married. Conservativepolitician Iain Duncan Smith condemns the labour party for stating that allfamily structures deliver the same outcome pointing to evidence that claimsmarriage has the best outcome for children. Other family structures are morelikely to be dissatisfied with democracy in the country as 45 percent of birthsnow take place out of marriage (Hayton, 2015). As a result, it is expected thatthere shall be a relation between marital status and the level of satisfactionwith democracy in the UK. A surveyreveals trust in the UK Government has sharply dropped.
Conservative leader,Theresa May was given a trust rating of 36% compared to 26% given to Labourleader Jeremy Corbyn. Only 18% of respondents said they trust political partiesin general. When asked which parties they trust, voters put the conservative at28% a huge drop from 36% in 2016. Labour at 25%, previously 31% and Liberaldemocrats at 20% from 23%, UKIP on 19%, the Green party at 27% from 29% and SNPon 22% from 25% (Grierson, 2018). The level of trust has reached a low and forthis reason my research hypothesis claims that the level of trust for politicalparties will be affected by the level of satisfaction with democracy in the UK.