è The works of Stoppard are saturated with a huge number of allusions,quotations and citations both in the original language (Shakespearean English,French, Latin, Ancient Greek), and in translation. This intertextual materialcan lead the reader to decipher the author’s idea, expanding the context of thework. As noted by the British researchers of Stoppard’s work, in plays theplaywright is inclined to raise questions without giving his own clear anddefinitive answers. Hence the duality of the reading of each Stoppard productthat we have repeatedly stated.è The basis of the composition “Rosenkrantz and Guildenstern”is composed of verbal and musical themes that are realized in the text of theplay with the help of a number of repetitive motifs (leitmotifs), the mostimportant are themes of fate and fate, eternity, insanity, randomness and freewill.
The leitmotif of expectation is manifested in the form of the Stoppardvariation of “Godot’s expectation” and at the level of the maincharacters – Rosencrantz and Guildenstern – the intertextual connection withShakespeare’s tragedy is viewed. A particular manifestation of the hero’sattribution to the Shakespearean text is their dependence on Prince Hamlet. Atthe same time, the attitude of Rosa and Gil to Hamlet is of the same nature asBekett’s vagabonds to Godot. While Hamlet is alive, Rosencrantz andGuildenstern are still on stage; until Godot appeared, Vladimir and Estragonwill not leave the agreed place. The motive for spying in the play of Stoppardin many respects echoes the Beckett motive of inaction, since for Rosa and Gil,not dedicated to the Sheksperian text, the fulfillment of the mission entrustedto them is absolutely impossible.The heroes of the play ofStoppard are equally doomed not only to death, but also to immortality, becausethey are fixed in the space and time of the classical work – “Hamlet”by William Shakespeare. The conceptual core of T.
Stoppard’s work – the themeof life-death-immortality – is declared by the playwright already in the titleof his first play.The first intertext modelthat we can single out is the use of a quote from another work as a title.Intertextual reference to the theme of life-death-immortality is already in thetitle of the play, which unites different cultural epochs. The title informsabout the paradoxical author’s attitude, which consists in deducing thedeceased as acting persons.In the play, thisintertextual layer is shown in a comic key.
Gil, puzzled by the fact that heloses all the time, tries to apply the methods known to him, – the theory ofprobability, the laws of averages. However, Gil, Shakespeare’s hero, dressed inthe costume of the Elizabethan era, in principle, can not be familiar withthese laws. Such an anachronism performs two functions in the play. First, itreflects the typical for postmodernism arbitrary perception of time. Secondly,the fact that Gil is familiar with at least the names of these mathematicaldiscoveries, demonstrates the timelessness of Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, dueto their belonging to Shakespeare’s immortal tragedy.Practically the whole play ofStoppard is presented in the form of an intertextual polylogue.
Even before theverbal parties of heroes begin to sound, the “foreign” artisticlanguages-Shakespeare’s (through the title) and Beckett’s (by opening theaction of the author’s remark) are introduced into the space of the Stoppardplay. In a number of cases, all three votes occupy equal positions, there areepisodes in which one of the artistic languages ??dominates. But, anyway, theconceptual originality of “Rosenkrantz …” is due, first of all, tothe combination in the play of three art systems – classical (Shakespearian),absurdist (Beckett) and postmodern (actually Stoppard).