Dues viruses to it. Besides external attacks on

Dues to the changes in informational technology, banks confront with the risk specific to electronic banks and currency. At this level, it looks like operational risk, reputational and juridical risks represents most important categories of risks, especially for international banks.
a) Operational risk. It appears from a potential loss due to some significant shortcomings in system’s validity and integration. Security consideration is very important, if banks are internal and external attack subjects on their products and services. Operational risk can appear as result of inefficient usage of electronic money or electronic bank, also from inadequate realisation or implementation of these systems. This category has the include the following types of risks:
? Security risks. Controlling access to bank system become more and more complex due to developed capacities of computers, geographical dispensation of access points and utilisation of different communication ways including public networks as it is Internet. Unauthorized access to the network may lead to direct loss, adding some debts to the clients and others. Also it may lead to a variety of authentication problems and specific access. For example, inadequate controls can lead to successful hackers attacks that works through internet, that can access, save and use client’s confidential information. If it is not controlled enough, a third person could get access to computerised bank system and add viruses to it. Besides external attacks on electronic money and banking systems, banks are exposed to operational risk regarding employee fraud. Employee could secretly collect authentication dates to access client’s account or to steal cards with stored value. Employee’s mistakes also could compromise bank’s systems. Counterfeit electronic money is the main risk for authorised securities, thing that is a crime according to penal code. This kind of risk increase when banks fail to incorporate adequate measures in finding out and counterfeit intervention. A bank deals with operation risks from falsification and owe the money that has been falsified. Also, can get expenses for a compromised system.
? Risks associated with projection, implementation and maintenance of the system. A bank is exposed to risk of interruption and slow down in of the system, if electronic bank or money chosen by bank are not compatible with user requirements.
? Risks that appear because of wrong use of banking products and services by clients.Risk is higher when a bank does not educate correspondingly clients about security precautions. Without adequate measures of transaction verification, clients can refuse transaction authorised in past, creating big losses to the clients that use personal information (authentication information, credit card number) in an uninsured electronic transactions can allow people with bad intention access to client’s accounts. As a result, bank can have financial losses because of unauthorized transactions.
b) Reputational risk.It is based on significant negative public opinion that consist in critical loss of banks clients or funds. Reputational risk appears when bank shares produce a big loss in public trust about bank’s ability to fulfil critic conditions and to continue its activity. Reputational risk is important for whole banking system, not particularly for one.
c) Juridical risk. It appears by violating or nonconformism with the laws, rules, reglementation or prescribed practices, or when rights and obligations of participant parts in a transaction are not set correctly. Banks committed in “e-banking” or “e-money” activity can with juridical risks referred to disclosure of clients information and to protection of banking system.
d) Management risk. A process of administration that includes that 3 base elements risk evaluation, risk exposure control, and risk miniaturisation will help banks and supervisors to reach these goal. It is essential for banks to have a transparent risk gestionation, and when are identified new risks in their activities, administrator’s council and executive management should be informed.
e) +Other risks. Traditional banking risks as credit risk, liquidity risk, debt rate risk and market risk are risks that can appear even in electronic banks activity. Credit risk represent risk that appear due to not fully paid obligation. Either at fixed term, or other fixed moment after that. Banks that deploy electronic bank activity can extend credit through untraditional ways and to extend market over the traditional geographical borders. Inadequate procedures that determine debitor credibility that require credits through electronic ways can determine credit risks for respective banks. Liquidity risks represent risk appeared due to banks incapacity to fulfil its obligation when it’s maturity time. Debit rate risk refers to financial situation exposure of a debt to an unsolicited debt rate. Payment risk is a loss risk registered inside the balance, also loss that appear as a result of price movement on the market, including currency exchange rate.
Lately, appeared new risks, such as strategic risk which appears as a result of misunderstandings between the leaders of activities regarding their potential and implication in the banking management.
Banks have to respond to these risks by making well defined strategies that will take into consideration all relevant activity’s effects of “e-banking” . Such strategy must be distributed efficiently along the transactions and must be based on an adequate business plan.
Fraud risk is real while using bank products and services. But there are some rules regarding payments operation security, and National Bank of Moldova comse with some suggestions to prevent fraud and to be assured of provided security at a high level.
If you have a bank account and are a fraud victim, you can get your money back in case you respected all security rules required by your bank. These conditions refer to banking practices such as the announcement in case of loss or theft of the card and/or the announcement of fraud as soon as you become aware of it.
a) Safe use of payment cards;
When you get the card from the bank, immediately sign the panel on the back. Keep the details of the card in a safe place. Do not give your card to others to use it, even family members. It keeps the card under conditions that exclude the damage, loss or theft of the card or the data it contains. Read carefully the contract terms and conditions that are issued with the card and comply with the rules. Do not disclose the PIN, CVV2 or other passwords to anyone, nor to the bank staff. If you pinpoint your Personal Identification Number (PIN) somewhere, do not keep it with your payment card. Make sure you have the contact details of the bank to immediately notify the bank if your card is lost or stolen.
Banks have a non-stop customer service where you can report a loss or card theft. The bank will immediately block your card, in order to avoid any loss of money from those left on your account.
You can ask the bank to set a maximum withdrawal limit from your account, which would reduce your account losses if your card and PIN are stolen.
Check cash and ATM receipts and compare them with your account statement. If you suspect any fraudulent activity, the BANK immediately announces.
Useful tips on how to safely use your payment card:
? Keep the card in a certain place. Thus, in case of theft or loss, you will be able to identify this immediately and notify the bank to intervene.
? It is recommended that the PIN provided by the bank be different from your address, phone number, social security number, or birthday.
? This detail makes it more difficult for your card to be used by a possible thief. Some banks offer the possibility of changing the PIN by the holder.
? Keep and compare receipts with account statements so you can identify unauthorized errors or transfers.
? Make sure you know and trust the merchant/vendor before disclosing any information about the payment account or pre-authorization of debiting your account.
? Read the monthly extras promptly and carefully. Contact your bank or other financial institution as soon as it identifies unauthorized transactions or errors.
b) Safe use of ATMs ;
Make sure no one sees you when you enter the PIN code. Check that the ATM does not have any unusual equipment/devices. If you notice something wrong, contact the bank immediately. If, at any time of the transaction, your card is lost in the ATM, do not leave the ATM but call the bank. If you use the ATM outside of the bank’s working hours, call customer service 24/24. The bank will immediately block the card in order to avoid any loss of money due to possible frauds. It does not allow you to be distracted or “helped” by foreigners. They can try to get your card and PIN-code.
c) Secure card payments to stores, restaurants and other retail outlets;
When you enter your PIN, it does not allow anyone to see the numbers you collect. Over time, new technologies have greatly reduced the ability to copy card information (known as skimming), but take the following precautions to prevent any chance of cloning the card:
? Do not leave the card in your viewfinder. For example, if a waiter wants to take the card from your table to make a payment in another room, insist on going with him.
? Do not allow anyone to insert the card with many special devices at a single point of sale. If the device does not work, you’ll need to issue a receipt informing you that the operation or connection failed.
? For shopping on the Internet, check if there are 3D Secure Safety Symbols. As a rule, placed at the bottom of the seller’s page. To make an electronic payment with your payment card, you do not need to enter the PIN code on any of the webpages.
d) Safe Use of Internet Banking;
It’s very likely that your bank’s security systems are safe, but when you do Banking Online you have to protect your bank account and external sources. Avoid using public terminals (such as libraries or Internet cafes) for Internet Banking. If you need to use a public terminal, make sure no one sees your login or login password and logged out at the end of your account usage session. It’s a great practice to change your password after you’ve made Banking from a public terminal.
You can do Internet Banking by connecting wirelessly only if you are sure of the integrity of the connection, as there is a high risk of interception during cableless connections.
Make sure you have up-to-date anti-virus and spyware programs to protect yourself against offenders. These types of computerized programs protect you from viruses, but also from the risk of being spied on remotely while doing banking, shopping or staying on social networks.
Do not leave other open web pages while doing Internet Banking.
Access the bank’s web address directly, not via a link, such as a search engine or an email. Collect the address on the search bar or save the bank’s web page as your favourite. Never access a link or web page that asks you to change your password or disclose the bank account information. Most likely, it’s spam/scam. Your BANCA does not need to confirm your data.
All webpages offering electronic payment facilities, such as banks and online stores, have a URL starting with: https://. The letter “s” in https:// informs you that the web page is secure. Make sure the browser has a padlock icon, which is also a hint that the web page is secure. You can click on this pad to confirm the owner of the page.
Choose a “solid” password that cannot be easily guessed. Try to have at least eight characters in the password, including letters, numbers, and symbols, such as the exclamation mark or dice. Change your password regularly.
Never tell anyone your password for Online Banking, not even bank representatives. When you have completed the online banking session, logout and close the browser window. If you suspect fraud or suspicious activity, immediately notify the bank.


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