DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION i DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION AND CROP CULTIVATION IN EDZAN FARM BRGY

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
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DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION AND CROP
CULTIVATION IN EDZAN FARM BRGY. MANIBAUG PARALAYA PORAC,
PAMPANGA

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A Thesis Presented to
The Civil Engineering Department
School of Engineering and Architecture
Holy Angel University

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree
Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering

By
Marc Aldrine D. Cortez
John Paolo C. Dela Cruz
Rhenzo S. Manusig
Jerica V. Nucup
Anna Katrina A. Ocampo
Ricky Y. Pamintuan

Engr. Marc Neil V. Adizas
Instructor

Engr. Marc Neil V. Adizas
Thesis Adviser

October 4, 2018

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
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APPROVAL SHEET

The thesis hereto titled
DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION AND CROP
CULTIVATION IN EDZAN FARM BRGY. MANIBAUG PARALAYA PORAC,
PAMPANGA
prepared and submitted by Marc Aldrine D. Cortez, John Paolo C. Dela Cruz, Rhenzo
S. Manusig, Jerica V. Nucup, Anna Katrina A. Ocampo and Ricky Y. Pamintuan in
partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Civil
Engineering has been examined and is recommended for acceptance and approval.

PANEL OF EXAMINERS

Approved by the Committee

_______________________ _______________________
Panelist Panelist

_______________________ _______________________
Panelist Panelist

Accepted and approved in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering.

_______________________ _______________________
Dr. Jay Jack R. Manzano Engr. Renato S. David, Chairperson
Dean, School of Engineering and Architecture Civil Engineering Department

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
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ABSTRACT

Irrigation of plants is usually a very time-consuming activity to be done in a reasonable
amount of time. Manibaug in the early years said to have a fertile land and abundant
agriculture. Edzan Farm is a place where locals farm and have their own land or
somehow rented areas to plant on and make as their main source of their livelihood.
Irrigation in Edzan Farm is not existent, traditional way of watering the crops is their
only means. It requires a large amount of human resources in order to plant and water
each layer of plants. Huge amount of water and energy are being wasted each day. The
researchers thought about a particular output that can help and provide the needs of the
residents and the community. The research is about applying drip irrigation system in a
specific community wherein many plants need enough source of water in order to grow
healthy and provide nutrients that the plant provides and to have a system that will
make the work much easier and done in a simpler manner. A pipe line system has been
designed to convey water from underground to the plot. The pipe line system was fully
designed with pipe of half inch as the main pipe of the system of diameter that makes it
possible to supply water with a discharge of 0.00709 cu. m. per minute and five eighths
inch of flexible hose where emitters will be attached in order to supply the water to the
plants by means of drip irrigation with a length of sixteen meters. Using this system,
one can save manpower and water to improve production and ultimately profit. The use
of the drip irrigation system help the community save more water than the traditional
way of watering their plants. The research proves that with the right theoretical
concepts, the system would function as to how it was designed. It reduced the amount
of water consumed by a specified area compared to normal irrigation systems. In
addition, it has low cost materials which are durable and at the same time detachable
features that makes easier to maintain. Furthermore, it made the farmers more
productive because of their extra time that they can allot to other agricultural activities.
In line, the farmers also increased their profit since extra laborers are needed.

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The researchers would like to express their deepest appreciation and gratitude to
God first and for most who gave them the strength and courage in facing all the
challenges and hindrances that they have encountered in doing the research and for
being with them from the beginning up until the final stage. The research will not be
possible without the help and guidance of their instructor, Engineer Mark Gibson Pusod
in teaching different techniques and for sharing his ideas for the betterment of the
research and constructive comments that helped the researchers come up with new
ideas. To their supportive instructors, Engineer Joselton Baking and Engineer Faustino
Castaneda, for sharing their knowledge and giving wise suggestions that helped in the
improvement to the design of the research. To their never ending support of their
dearest adviser, Engineer Marc Neil Adizas, for giving tips and techniques in making
the research a success.
The researchers would also like to thank the officials of Brgy. Manibaug
Paralaya for leading the way to Edzan Farm and to the residents of the farm for
allowing them to choose the said community as their beneficiary for the research.
Special thanks to Mr. Efren Dubibar and Mr. Allan Duferto for their hospitality and the
kind gestures that they showed during the ocular visit and initial survey in the said area.
Their cooperation means a lot and takes a big part in doing the research.
The researchers would like to express their appreciation to their respective
families who encouraged and prayed for them throughout the time of the research. The
research is heartily dedicated to their parents for their hard work and support they have
given throughout the studies in the university and to their friends who stayed with them,
supported and gave them strength in times of hardships and sleepless nights. All the
efforts of the people mentioned above, are all appreciated.
That in all things, God may be glorified!

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..i
APPROVAL SHEET ………………………………………………………………………………………….ii
ABSTRACT ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ………………………………………………………………………………….iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS …………………………………………………………………………………….v

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………..1
1.1 Background of the Community ……………………………………………………….1
1.2 Background of the Study ………………………………………………………………..3
1.3 Statement of the Problem ……………………………………………………………….6
1.4 Objectives of the Study ………………………………………………………………….6
1.5 Significance of the Study ……………………………………………………………….7
1.6 Scope and Limitations ……………………………………………………………………7
1.7 Hypothesis ……………………………………………………………………………………8
1.8 Review of Related Literature ………………………………………………………….8

CHAPTER 2 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK ……………………………………………………31

CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY ………………………………………………………………………..32
3.1 Research Design ………………………………………………………………………….32
3.2 Sources of Data …………………………………………………………………………..32
3.3 Participants …………………………………………………………………………………33
3.4 Proposed Design ………………………………………………………………………….34
3.5 Materials …………………………………………………………………………………….35
3.6 Procedure ……………………………………………………………………………………38
3.7 Data Analysis Plan ………………………………………………………………………39
3.8 Study Area Description ………………………………………………………………..39
3.9 Site Data Collection ……………………………………………………………………..40
3.10 Limitations ………………………………………………………………………………….40
3.11 Maintenace …………………………………………………………………………………41
3.12 Durability ……………………………………………………………………………………42
3.13 Advantages over the other Irrigation System …………………………………..43

CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ……………………………………………………..46
4.1 Flow Rates ………………………………………………………………………………….46
4.2 Water Conservation ……………………………………………………………………..47
4.3 Cost and Benefit Analysis …………………………………………………………….49

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
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CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION …………………………………51

LIST OF REFERENCES …………………………………………………………………………………..vii
APPENDICES ………………………………………………………………………………………………..viii
LIST OF TABLES ………………………………………………………………………………..viii
LIST OF FIGURES …………………………………………………………………………………ix

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
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LIST OF REFERENCES

Ahmed Ibrahim A.I., Mutaz Mohamed A.M.O., Omer Osman O.B, Ahmed Ismat M.A
et.al (2016). Design and Development of GSM Based Automated Spray
Irrigation System Prototype.

Alagha, S.A1 and Sangodoyin, A.Y2 (2013). Water management and appropriate
irrigation system for greenhouse tomato production in soilless media.
International Journal of Agriculture and Food Security. Vol. 1(1), pp. 001-011.

Bamouni Souleymane (2011). Design proposal of drip irrigation system for an efficient
management of irrigation water for maize improved seeds production in a part
of seeds farm of loumbila.

Evans Asenso (2011). Design and evaluation of a simple pvc drip irrigation system
using akposoe maize variety as a test crop.

Philippine Rice Research Institute (2010). Improving Agricutural Productivity in
Pampanga. Rice Technology Bulletin Series (ISSN 0117-9799).

Pragna Guguloth (2016). Hydraulic Performance Evaluation of Drip Irrigation System
for Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L).

Richard, Moyo (2005). Impact and sustainability of drip irrigation kits, in the semi-arid
Lower Mzingwane Catchment, Limpopo Basin, Zimbabwe: University of
Zimbabwe.

Simon Haidula (2016). Irrigation water use and vegetable production efficiency
assessment between sprinkler and drip irrigation systems at North Central Namibia
(NCN).

http://www.nzdl.org/gsdlmod?e=d-00000-00—off-0hdl–00-0—-0-10-0—0—0direct-
10—4——-0-1l–11-en-50—20-about—00-0-1-00-0–4—-0-0-11-10-0utfZz-8-
00&a=d&cl=CL1.16&d=HASH412cd503b5262205ac14c6.7.4

http://www.harbest.com.ph/document/PATAK%20ANI%20NEW.pdf

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
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APPENDICES

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1.1: Average discharge of emitters at different operating pressures ………………..13
Table 1.2: Relation between pressure and discharge of different emitters …………………14
Table 1.3: Developed models for the pressure discharge relationship ………………………15
Table 1.4: Performance criteria determination of flow through the pipe …………………..24
Table 1.5: Yield and quality of tomato planted in various soilless media …………………27
Table 1.6: Procedure for estimating Benefit from tomato per year …………………………..28
Table 1.7: Characteristics of materials and equipment used ……………………………………30
Table 1.8: Characteristics of the pipe …………………………………………………………………..30
Table 1.9: Different volume of water …………………………………………………………………..30
Table 3.1: Advantages over the other Irrigation System …………………………………………43
Table 4.1: First Drop of Water (20ml) …………………………………………………………………46
Table 4.2: Continuous Flow of Water (20ml) ……………………………………………………….46
Table 4.3: Total Weekly Water Needs …………………………………………………………………48
Table 4.4: Computation Breakdown ……………………………………………………………………49
Table 4.5: Cost and Benefit Analysis …………………………………………………………………..50

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1: Layout plan of the experiment ……………………………………………………………13
Figure 1.2: Layout of experimental field ………………………………………………………………21
Figure 2.1: Conceptual Framework ……………………………………………………………………..31
Figure 3.1: Proposed Design ………………………………………………………………………………34

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Community

The place barrio of Manibaug in Porac Pampanga was comprised in its whole
territories of what is now the barrios of Manibaug Pasig, Libutad, and Paralaya. Its
boundaries start from Sta. Cruz and end on barrio Maliwalo in Bacolor, on the north
with Angeles. The barrio of Manibaug is said to be peaceful place, thickly forested,
fertile and with enough supply of water for irrigation. Due to its fertility, they use
grazing of horses, cows, carabaos, goats, and other fowls for pasturage, they also plant
sugarcane, root-crops, and in the part of lowlands rice and vegetables. The barrio of
Manibaug has its attribute due to the numerous kind of insect similar to a black beetle
that pested on palm trees that they called them “Sibaung”. Between 1700 – 1800
periods, more people began to trickle and permanently settled on the locality, their
livelihood was purely agriculture and later on pioneer tinsmith began their trade due to
demand on farm implements.

The partitioning of Manibaug began with the arrival of the Americans. Due to
the increasing number of the immigrants living in Manibaug, the barrio official can no
longer contain the need of its jurisdiction. Because of this, Manibaug was divided into
two separate barrios. One of the two barrios is Manibaug-Pasig, Pasig means
“riverbank”. The name Pasig originated due to its proximity to the river Pasig in Porac.
Barrio Pasig is located along the western part of Manibaug. The Boundaries of Pasig
starts from the Roman Catholic parish church in Manibaug and ends in Mancatian
Bridge 1. It has a total land area of one thousand twenty one hectare. As of the census

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1990 its population was placed at a total of five thousand two hundred eighty two or a
total eight hundred seventy six households. But after the onslaught of lahar brought by
the Pinatubo eruption in 1991 its population has been reduced to seven hundred thirty
eight or an equivalent of one hundred seventy one households as of the census of 2000.
The barrio is one of the rural barangays of Porac that is mostly planted to sugarcane and
rice or “palay”. Manibaug Pasig had its own Elementary School with eight academic
building and one home economics building. And the other barrio is Manibaug-
Paralaya, Paralaya comes from the two Pampango term which are “Para” meaning to or
towards and “Alaya” which means east or eastern. Its boundary starts from the church
and ends in Sta. Cruz in the east, on the north by Pulungmaba, on the south by
Calzadangbayu, on the west by Manibaug- Pasig. The total land area of Barrio Paralaya
is three hundred ninety seven hectares with a total population of five thousand one
hundred thirteen as of the census of 1990 or a total of nine hundred households. Barrio
Paralaya also had four Academic building and one Home Economics building. The
livelihood of Barrio Paralaya also comes from planting sugarcane and “palay”. Some
area of the land plants cassava and variety of vegetables.

In 1945, after the American Liberation, more migrants dwell in Manibaug-Pasig
due to the establishment of Clark Air Base. This significant boom in local economy
about the growth of population in the area. The growing population caused the
Manibaug-Pasig to separate into two, one for west called Barrio Pasig and one for the
north called Barrio Libutad. Today, the Barrio Libutad has been on the road to
progress, most tract of land has been transformed into subdivision and other resident
have started to do business in the barrio.

Manibaug consists of abundant areas and lands for agriculture and farming. It
has been their main source of living and will never be apart from their lives. Edzan

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Farm is one of the areas where some local farmers live and cultivate their crops.
Underground water is their main source through where they get to water their crops.
Irrigation in Edzan Farm is not existent, man labor is the only means of watering their
crops. Huge amount of water, time and energy are being wasted each day.

There are varieties of plants and crops that the farm grows and cultivates in the
Edzan Farm. Lettuce, spinach and pechay are some of the crops that farmers plant.
Pechay is a common crop that Edzan Farm cultivates. Also known as Chinese cabbage,
mustard cabbage or pak choi, pechay is a native of the place. It can grow to a maximum
size of twenty centimeter but mostly it grows around ten centimeter in length. The leaf
shape of this plant is round and their roots are mostly thin, and not long. The leafy
green crop is tolerant of many soil types and temperature zones, requiring little more
than full sun. Pechay leaves are quick growers, which means they are ready for harvest
in as little as one month. All crops in the farm are being watered three times a day, one
at dawn, then in the afternoon and lastly before the sunsets. Once the crops have been
harvested, farmers sell it to the public market vendors and from there another batch of
plants and crops will be planted.

1.2 Background of the Study

Water is a resource that all living spices needed. It is therefore very precious
and has to be used for moderation to be preserve for the generations to come.
Agriculture is an industry that uses a lot of water. Most of the time this resource is not
used efficiently and substantial amount of water is wasted. Water conservation is the
most cost – effective and environmentally sound way to reduce our demand for water.
Water conservation is the preservation, control and management of water resources.
Water conservation is important on site to lessen the amount of water used and to

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contribute to the sustainable use of water. It is required in order to ensure the
conservative use of water during drought and other water shortages as well as reducing
pressure on rivers and streams used for water abstraction.

Water conservation is the use and control of water for the coolest of all clients.
It is used in agriculture, industry, and the home. Human necessities for agricultural
production, flood manage, fish and wildlife management, navigation, commercial
production, and plenty of other uses have amended natural hydrologic procedures. The
hydrosphere refers to that part of Earth that is made of water, along with all oceans,
lakes, rivers, streams, glaciers, and underground water. Less than three percent of the
water of Earth is freshwater, a quantity that consists of polar ice caps, glaciers,
groundwater, surface water of rivers and freshwater lakes, and even atmospheric water.
But, the quantity of freshwater useable by way of people and other contributors of the
biosphere is much less than 0.7 percent of the whole (that is water in rivers and lakes,
and inside the ground). This fairly small quantity of available freshwater is recycled
and purified through the action of methods in the hydrologic cycle, which includes
evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and percolation via the ground. All existence
relies upon on the availability of freshwater.

Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to vegetation at
needed periods. Irrigation allows to develop agricultural crops, preserve landscapes,
and revegetate disturbed soils in dry regions and at some point of periods of insufficient
rainfall. Irrigation also has other uses in crop production, consisting of frost protection,
suppressing weed growth in grain field sand stopping soil consolidation.

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There are different types of irrigation: The Surface Irrigation in which water is
distributed over and across land by gravity, no mechanical pump involved. The soil
acts as the developing medium in which water is saved and the conveyance medium
over which water flows as it spreads and infiltrates. The Sprinkler Irrigation in which
water is distributed by overhead high-pressure sprinklers or guns from a central location
in the field or from sprinklers. Drip Irrigation is a type of localized irrigation in which
drops of water are delivered at or near the root of plants. Lateral Move systems are
selfpropelled irrigation systems which apply water to pasture or crop, generally from
above the canopy.

Drip irrigation is a way of controlled irrigation wherein water is slowly added to
the root system of multiple vegetation. In this approach, water is either dripped onto the
soil surface above the roots, or immediately to the root area. It is often a technique
chosen over surface irrigation as it enables to reduce water evaporation. Drip irrigation
is introduced to plant roots through a chain of pipes, tubes, and valves. These
components, controlled with the aid of emitters and pumps, permit water to be focused
in a specific area. In addition, drip systems can contain liquid fertilizer into the
irrigation water.

Drip irrigation systems can help lessen evaporation and runoff and contribute to
water conservation. But, before this system can work successfully it ought to be well
installed and controlled. The two major types of drip irrigation are: surface drip
irrigation wherein the water is added to the surface of the soil directly above the root
system of the plants. This specific kind of drip irrigation is especially used on high-
value plants. Second is the subsurface drip irrigation in which the water is applied
immediately to the root system. This kind is used specifically in developing row crops.

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1.3 Statement of the Problem

Irrigation of plants is mostly a very time-consuming activity, to be carried out in
a reasonable quantity of time, it requires a large amount of human assets. Traditionally,
all the steps had been completed by people. These days, some farmers and owners of
big farmlands use systems that help their people and farmers to water their plants in the
maximum efficient manner. Using such systems results to the reduction of the time
required to water the vegetation and a decrease in energy utilization. However within
the case of the farmers in Edzan Farm, such system does no longer exist. Former
approach of planting and watering vegetation is being used up until now. Water is one
of the resources which can be used excessively. Nowadays, the technique that local
farmers used to water their vegetation like in Edzan Farm losses a large amount of
water since the amount of water given is in excess of the plant needs. The present day
perception of water is that of a free, renewable resource that can be utilized in
abundance. However, this is not reality. Water must no longer be taken for granted for
it can be long past in some time later.

1.4 Objectives of the Study

The research aims to improve and stabilize the crop yields of farmers in Edzan
Farm in Manibaug, Porac through the implementation of sustainable drip irrigation
system and the promotion of water resource conservation practices that optimize the
volume and timing of water distribution. The research intends to produce a type of
irrigation system where it conserves water for the farmers using water pump then stores
water in a container then supply water for the crops. The research also aims to
minimize the cost of labor for the farmers.

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1.5 Significance of the Study

The study of Drip Irrigation with the use of water pump will help the farmers
first and foremost, they will have a system that will make their work much easier and
done in a simpler manner. It enables them to produce more goods than usual comparing
to the original way because it will take lesser time compared to watering the crops one
by one which limits the farmers to do other things. With the help of the drip irrigation
they could widen their area for the crops so that they can harvest more goods in the end.
It also saves them from other expenses, because the materials that are going to be used
in the irrigation system are locally made, which means they are low-cost but at the same
time efficient and capable of supplying the whole farm with water. Time is very
important for everyone, it is also beneficial if they can save time and effort through the
help of the drip system and not spend the whole day constantly supplying water to the
crops. And most importantly it also conserves water. It is already projected that in the
year 2025, there will be a shortage of clean and consumable water for everyone. It is
necessary as early as now to preserve and recycle our resources to prevent such hazard.
Almost 80% of Earth is composed of water, it means water is vital for survival and it
must be taken into consideration.

1.6 Scope and Limitations

Drip Irrigation is applicable to any type of soil to be used but crops are limited
because some plants or crops cannot be irrigated by drip irrigation and requires a lot of
amount of water. As known water is vital for everyone and that includes plants and
crops. To attain a fruitful harvest, it is significant to supply them enough water and
care. The water that will be used for irrigation will be coming from the ground water
table. A water pump is already installed near the area and will be transferring water to a

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container. Groundwater is fairly clean and can be used to water crops and soil. There
will be holes placed on the pipes to act as outlet for the water to stream out of the pipes.
The materials that are going to be used are low cost and low maintenance and can be
purchase in the Philippines. It gives the farmers gain more profit by exerting less effort
and that would give them more time while conserving water for the future. When the
container empties, they can pump water and fill the container. This type of irrigation is
applicable during dry season but it is also considered during rainy season for it
availability and convenience.

1.7 Hypothesis

The drip irrigation system will help the farmers to increase their crop yields and
at the same time consumed less water than the traditional way of watering the crops.
The system will also reduce the duration of work and saved manpower. It will also
decrease the distribution of wedges for the laborer.

1.8 Review of Related Literature

1.8.1 Hydraulic Performance Evaluation of Drip Irrigation System for
Cabbage, by Pragna Guguloth, 2016

Introduction
Water scarcity and shortage of water aid management technologies are not
unusual demanding situations confronted by means of majority of small and marginal
farmers in speedy growing international locations like India. With a purpose to resolve
the hassle of water scarcity in agriculture, it is vital to increase water-saving

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management technology. Irrigation water is provided to the plants/vegetation to
replenish soil moisture at root-region while herbal rainfall is inadequate or poorly
disbursed. The green usage of irrigation water is viable by using the adoption of high
green irrigation gadget, consisting of, micro irrigation machine. Drip irrigation
technique is one of the first-class water software methods which have been used within
the world among the other irrigation strategies due to its desirable and high uniformity
and excessive water use efficiency. In drip irrigation system water is applied frequently
and small amounts of irrigation water at required points of a field surface/subsurface
near the plants. With drip irrigation, water and fertilizer requirements can be applied
directly to the plant root zone with minimum losses which is called fertigation,
maintaining uniform moisture in the soil profile. In addition, drip irrigation system has
the advantage of fitting to difficult topography. Drip irrigation has advantages of less
hindrance with cultural operations and improved cultural practices, allows field
operations even during irrigation, less nutrient and chemical leaching and deep
percolation, reduced weed germination and growth, reduced pest and disease damages
due to drier and less humid crop canopies, warmer soils, no soil crusting due to
irrigation, and also well suited to widely spaced crops.

“A successful performance of drip irrigation system depends on the physical and
hydraulic characteristics of the drip tubing “according to AL Amound, 1995. “A best
and desirable feature of trickle irrigation is that the uniform distribution of water is
possible, which is one of the most important parameters in design, management, and
adoption of this system. Ideally, a well-designed system applies nearly equal amount of
water to each plant maintaining uniformity, meets its water requirements, and is
economically feasible. Efficiency of drip irrigation system depends on application
uniformity which can be evaluated by direct measurement of emitter flow rates. The
main factors affecting drip irrigation uniformity are manufacturing variations in
emitters, pressure regulators, and pressure variations caused by elevation changes,

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
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friction head losses throughout the pipe network, emitter sensitivity to pressure,
irrigation water temperature changes and emitter clogging” according to Mizyed and
Kruse, 1989. Therefore, Therefore, evaluation of hydraulics of drip irrigation system
helps in improving the design of drip irrigation system and better distribution of
irrigation water.

Uniform distribution of water system approach that every single one of the
plants receive an equal amount of water. In a poorly designed system, one cannot get
uniform distribution of water, therefore it’d both beneath irrigate or over irrigate the
field. under both instances, plants will either suffer the dry or the moist stresses. And a
properly designed trickle system, uniform distribution of water is ensured which results
in higher yields.

The machine performance is related to system uniformity and water losses that
can be evaluated by using direct measurements of emitter flow rates. If, the water
losses are excessive or distribution uniformity is bad, it might result in low system
efficiency. but, the distribution of water as measured within the subject does not really
represent the distribution of water within the soil. As a count number of fact, the real
soil moisture distribution is the result of some aspect motion of water in the soil far
away from the emission point. therefore, it’s far feasible to irrigate with a mile’s lower
uniformity co-efficient below many conditions without tormented by yield discounts.
The uniformity co-efficient is probably laid low with the duration of lateral itself.
Longer laterals end result stress drops within the line and purpose bad uniformity closer
to the tail ends. Distribution of moisture beneath trickle irrigation relies upon upon the
uniformity of application, one of the critical factors for the clothier and the consumer.
The preliminary value of the gadget, operating price, and crop yield reaction to
irrigation, all are associated with the uniformity of water utility. however, right design

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recommendations are prerequisite for a better system overall performance. As quickly
as a system has been established in the field, the assessment should be carried and
periodically repeated with time if the fine overall performance is desired.

In drip irrigation the water movement and its distribution in the soil depends
upon many parameters like soil type, crop cultivars, crop planting pattern, discharge
rate of emitters, amount of water applied, and climatic factors, etc. While planning drip
irrigation system for a crop it is imperative to select: (i) emitters of size that discharge
water at a desired rate, (ii) irrigation supplies that render a wetted soil-volume sufficient
to fulfill plants’ evaporative demands and (iii) a planting pattern that reduces the cost of
initial investment without adversely affecting crop yield.

Drip irrigation is arguably the maximum green approach of supplying water to
trees, plants, gardens and landscapes. The performance of a well-designed drip
irrigation device can reach nearly a hundred%. Drip irrigation can probably offer
excessive software efficiency and achieve excessive application uniformity. Both are
vital in producing uniformly high crop yields and retaining water first-class while each
water and chemical compounds are implemented thru the irrigation device. Because the
stress version will increase, the uniformity and alertness efficiency of the system is
decreased which increases the water losses. Evaluation of hydraulics of drip irrigation
gadget helps in enhancing the design of irrigation device and higher manage of
irrigation water.

Methodology
Hydraulic evaluation of trickle system was done based on a method defined by
the ASAE (1999). The machine was examined for its uniformity coefficient, emission

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
12
uniformity, and production coefficient of variant. Drippers having discharge potential
i.e. 1.6, 2.2, 3.0 and 4.0 lph respectively were tested at exceptional working stress i.e.
0.five, zero.7, 0.9, 1.25 and 1.5 kg/cm² and these pressures are maintained through the
usage of manipulate valve on the inlet of each lateral. The strain was adjusted by means
of the usage of the skip valve. The working strain head become measured by strain
gauge. Drippers on a lateral were decided on randomly and discharges had been
measured on them. For each dimension, a small place in the bed was excavated, and a
capture-can placed under the trickling emitter. Water was gathered from drippers to
confine the release into the plastic field directly. Water amassed in containers become
measured with the help of measuring cylinder. The irrigation gadget became then
pressurized and the quantity from every of the emitters turned into measured over a
period of one hour.

Materials
The drip irrigation system which includes head control unit (includes non-return
valve, air launch valve, disc filter, fertigation unit, stress gauge, and water meter), water
carrier device (consists of percent major pipe line, sub major pipe line, manage valves,
flush valves) and water distribution device (indispensable dripper line of 16 mm
diameter with emitter spacing of 40 cm) became laid out inside the experiment field.
The dripper lines of 10 m length had been laid at 1.2 m apart. Emitters with exclusive
discharge prices of 1.6 lph, 2.2 lph, 6.0 lph and 4.0 lph had been fixed to the lateral as
according to the treatments. The cease plugs (caps) have been constant to all principal,
sub major, and laterals to facilitate renovation of the device. Manipulate valves were
supplied at each treatment (with three lateral strains) which facilitates the operation of
the device in keeping with irrigation time. Non-return valve fixed regulated the float in
one route and prevented the reversal of water glide and fertilizer go with the flow lower
back to the bore properly. The field layout plan of test is offered in Figure 1.1

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
13

Figure 1.1: Layout plan of the experiment

Data

Table 1.1: Average discharge of emitters at different operating pressures

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14
From Table 1.1 it can be seen that the release from the distinctive drippers had
been elevated with increase in operating strain. Logarithmic relationships were evolved
between stress and discharge for each of the dripper. The relationship of strain and
discharge of every dripper have been shown in Table 1.1 The exponential shape of the
mathematical relationships turned into offered in Table 1.2 located for the stress-
discharge relationships. R2 value of every dripper discharge became above 0.95 and
may be stated that the version suits right. It can be visible from desk three that during
case of all of the dripper discharge quotes, the exponent of the strain become less than
0.5. This indicated that the character of flow from the dripper was no longer an orifice
waft. The exponent of strength function become reduced with potential of dripper
which indicated that the sensitivity of the dripper to stress for the discharge was
decreased with boom in dripper capacity.

Table 1.2: Relation between pressure and discharge of different emitters

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15
Table 1.3: Developed models for the pressure discharge relationship

1.8.2 Irrigation water use and vegetable production efficiency assessment
between sprinkler and drip irrigation systems at North Central Namibia,
by Simon Haidula, 2016

Introduction
One major contribution to food scarcity is irrigated agriculture, which produces
forty percent of food and seventy percent of agricultural goods in the agricultural land.
These irrigated places have doubled and have contributed growth in agricultural
productivity. An estimate was brought up that irrigated agriculture uses more than
seventy percent of the water coming from the rivers of the earth. Water is a precious
resource in agricultural food production because it remains as a limited resource, in
which the match of this valuable resource is greatly increasing due to the changes of
events such as rapid increment in world population, climate change, agricultural and
industrial activities. This affects a risk to maintainable production and global food
security, wherein unsustainable agricultural practices which need excessive water and
other production intake leads to incapable production and water scarcity.

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
16
Drip irrigation has many definitions but in this study, drip irrigation is defined as
controlled irrigation techniques that decrease water demand, with lesser impacts on crop
yield and quality, guiding to improved food security, farm profit and secure sustainable
agricultural productivity. In dry areas, the use of sprinkler and drip irrigation can help
in improving crops quality and their yield as well. Other studies also supported that
these kind of irrigation systems can maximize the water use efficiency for high yield per
unit of water given to the crops. Also, the two irrigation systems can give profit to the
farmers by having high crop yield if joint with good farming practices like, good soil
management, good fertilization, pests management, mechanization operations and
improved seeds. Furthermore, these irrigation systems can lessen manmade
environmental effects that contain water wastage. Example of this is land reclamation
with sewage, water waste from the cities and factories, converting them into agricultural
crop productivity.

Efficiency is the capacity to produce the desired effect, expenses, and wastes.
While, agricultural water use efficiency is the ratio of crop yield per unit of water
applied. With the use of drip and sprinkler irrigation, water use efficiency and high
productivity were proven success. For example, success was obtained in fruits
production, in cotton, and an increase grain yield in vast semi – arid area of China and
vegetable crops production such as, tomato, hot pepper, and potato production.

Methodology
In measuring irrigation production efficiency of drip and sprinkler irrigation
systems on the three vegetables, manage the data, whereby production efficiency was
calculated as a response variable in using the formula of: total output over total input
costs used in the production times a hundred, of each vegetable. To compare the
production efficiency per between the two irrigation systems, each crop was studied

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
17
individually under two different irrigation systems such that data were disassociated
into two groups, farmers producing the crops using drip irrigation system and farmers
producing the crops with sprinkler irrigation system. A backward selection linear
model was used to measure the significance or effects of the predictor variables on the
response variable. Furthermore, there are many covariates predictor variables that can
correct bad distributions by backward selection.

Data
The objectives of the study was to compare the relationship or effects of
different factors: farmers age, production inputs costs (water, fertilizer, labor and
chemicals), types of fertilizer used (kraal manure or inorganic fertilizer), hectare size of
land planted, stakeholder inputs, and agricultural soil management practices, on
irrigation production efficiency on three vegetable crops (tomato, cabbage and pepper)
produced under two types of irrigation systems, drip and sprinkler irrigation system at
North Central Namibia. Many stated that irrigation production yield efficiency has
proven success on various crops including vegetables, produced with the use of drip and
sprinkler irrigation, whereby the production efficiency and high economic return in
vegetables is enhanced through the amount of water used, input costs, agricultural soil
management practices, farmers age, and others more, stated factors. Moreover, it was
revealed that efficiency is more like conjoined with drip relative to sprinkler irrigation,
other studies disagree with these findings, that there no statistical difference between
crop production efficiency between drip and sprinkler irrigation systems.

In this study, water measured by cost used in the crops production, has shown
positive effect on production efficiency of all the three vegetable crops grown with the
use of the two irrigation systems, high water cost means more water irrigated to crops,
the high irrigation efficiency. The production efficiency of tomatoes, cabbage, and

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
18
pepper under both irrigation systems, was increased with the use of water irrigated to
the plants. Several studies discovered similar findings but the production efficiency
differs depending on the irrigation type used, and climatic conditons such as soil and
climate. On the other hand, other studies stated that excess water can lead to poor
fertilization and nutrients leaching resulting in a decline in irrigation production
efficiency. Furthermore, other studies stated that production efficiency can be achieved
under drip irrigation since economic wise utilizes water to an extent of eighty seven
percent without causing yield loss.

The study concluded that production input costs; fertilizer and water are very
important determinant of irrigation production efficiency of all three vegetables on both
irrigation systems. Irrigation production efficiency of vegetables under drip irrigation is
high than vegetables under sprinkler irrigation, however drip farmers spend much in
buying inputs than sprinkler irrigation farmers. Statistical results on total output per ha
and irrigation system the relationship was not significant, neither the interaction
between water and irrigation system was found to be significant. Furthermore,
relationship between water cost and irrigation system was not significant, and this leads
to conclude that efficiency between the two irrigation systems was found equal. Apart
from mulching, other agro – ecological soil practices were not found significant in this
study. In conclusion, most findings of this study are not in line with the expected
findings.

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1.8.3 Design and Evaluation of a simple PVC Drip Irrigation System using
Akposoe Maize Variety as a Test Crop, by Evans Asenso, September 2011

Introduction
Irrigation is the synthetic application of water to the soil or plant, in the required
amount and at the time wanted, is a risk management tool for agricultural
manufacturing. The danger of yield reduction because of drought is minimized with
irrigation. Irrigation is extensively performed through surface, sub-surface and
pressurized systems, characterized by way of the mode of delivery of the water onto the
point of utility (Keller and Bliesner, 1990). When water is applied at the surface, a
substantial quantity is lost thru evaporation, run off and deep percolation making it
much less efficient.

Area application performance in most traditional irrigation methods remains
very low, generally much less than 50% (sprinkler irrigation) and often as low as 30%
(floor irrigation) (Molden et al. 1998). Excessive use of water typically entails losses
because of surface run-off from the field and deep percolation underneath the root zone
inside the field. Each run-off and deep percolation losses are difficult to manipulate
below furrow irrigation device, where a large quantity of water is implemented at an
unmarried instance. An alternative water application method consisting of the drip
irrigation approach allow for much greater uniform distribution in addition to greater
unique manipulate of the quantity of water applied and additionally decreases nutrient
leaching (Phene et al. 1994).

Drip irrigation is defined as “the gradual, frequent use of small volumes of
irrigation water to the base or root region of plants” (Smeal, 2007). Greater adoption of

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
20
this in current years started out within the late 1960s to early 1970s. Benefits of drip
irrigation system comprise: less water loss, discount in weed growth, less labour
requirements, minimal evaporation as compared to other watering methods, less usage
of fertilizer, decreased soil erosion, equitable water distribution and better crop
production. Negative aspects of this technology consist of: clogging of drip holes,
excessive preliminary price, algae growth and easy damage to drip pipes. Drip
irrigation is an effective technique for minimizing the water utilized in agricultural and
horticultural crop manufacturing. Frequency of water application is one of the
maximum vital factors in drip irrigation control due to its impact on soil water regime,
root distribution across the drip holes, the amount of water uptake by means of roots
and water percolating past the root region (Coelho and or 1999; Assouline, 2002; Wang
et al. 2006).

Methodology
Field preparation was completed by means of digging trenches of depth 60 cm at
spacing of 75 cm within the East to West course. PVC pipes at a drip hollow spacing of
35 cm had been laid manually in every trench at a nominal depth of 40 cm, 20 cm
and 0 cm.

The test was laid Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 4
replications. The laterals were 6m long and 1.5 m extensive placement representing
three different laterals for each treatment, as indicated on Figure 1.2.

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
21

Figure 1.2: Layout of experimental field

To calibrate the pipe for uniformity of flow from 16 drip holes of 2 mm
diameter each per lateral of 6 m, end cap fixed at one end, elbow fixed at the other and
jointed to a pipe of peak 0.6 m. This was connected to the main pipe through the
elbows to supply water from the storage tank to the main laterals thru the drip holes.
Collector cans had been used to collect water from the drip holes. The collector cans
had been located on a level surface which was checked with a levelling tool (spirit
level), to ensure even distribution of water within the drip holes.

A 25-liter container used as the storage tank and positioned at a peak of 0.8 m
to provide the flow head. A funnel was positioned on the 0.6 m pipe end to direct the
water into the lateral. The tap linked to the tank was opened completely to allow the
water glide through the lateral. The accumulated water over half-hour was measured
using a measuring cylinder to test uniformity of water drift from each drip hole.

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
22
Materials
Thirty-six (36) PVC pipes of length 6m and diameter 22.5 mm have been used.
Drip holes of diameter 2 mm had been made at a spacing of 0.35 m on each PVC pipe
based on maize planting distance. The drip holes were drilled with a hand drill with a
drill system with a drill size of 2 mm. End caps had been used to cover one end of the
pipe line to stop flowing out. Elbows have been used to attach the extension pipes to
the main lateral. The geotextile material (of 0.06 m × 0.39 m size) and a copper wire
(of length 0.25 m) were used to restrict the flow of water from the drip holes of the
laterals, which served as a soaking medium and manage drip flow. The PVC pipes have
been laid at three specific depths; 0 cm, 20 cm and 40 cm. The maize range (Akposoe)
become planted as a take a look at crop at a planting spacing of 0.75 m among rows and
0.35 m within rows with a furrow of 1m among remedies.

Tapes and tubes are available for use as laterals. Tape merchandise are thinner
than tubes (Neufeld et al., 1993). Usually, tube wall thickness degrees from 0.04 mm to
1.5 mm (Hanson et al., 2000). Camp et al. (2000) recognized instructions of tape wall
thickness. Bendy thin-walled (0.15 mm to 0.30 mm) tapes are commonly used for
shallow set up, even as thicker-walled (0.38 mm to 0.50 mm) tapes are set up deeper or
wherein the soil does not offer sufficient support to prevent collapse with the aid of
equipment or soil weight.

Emitters are plastic devices which exactly supply small quantities of water. Hla
and Scherer (2003) defined two varieties of emitter. Point-source emitters discharge
water from man or woman or a couple of shops. Line-supply emitters have perforations,
holes, porous partitions, or emitters extruded into the plastic lateral traces (Ayars et al.,
2007). Line- source emitters are commonly used for extensively spaced plants which
include vines, ornamentals, shrubs and trees. The emitters used for SDI are a whole lot

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
23
similar to the ones used for surface drip, but the emitter is constant internally inside the
drip line (Harris, 2005c).

Soil characteristics and plant spacing determine emitter spacing. Further, an
emitter spacing of 0.3 m was appropriate for corn manufacturing for deep silt loam soils
underneath subsurface drip (Lamm and Aiken, 2005). In a semi-arid environment, 0.45
m emitter spacing was utilized in clay loam soils for drip-irrigated corn (Howell et al.,
1995). In preferred, emitter spacing ought to normally be much less than the drip lateral
spacing and closely related to crop spacing (Lamm and Camp, 2007)

Data

Table 1.4: Performance criteria determination of flow through the pipe

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24
Maize growth under drip irrigation gave better outcomes in terms of growth
parameters as compared to rain-fed (“No irrigation”). In general, plant height, stem
girth, leaf width, quantity of leaves and leaf length under drip irrigation become
statistically similar, but significantly better as compared to “No Irrigation” treatment.

1.8.4 Water Management and Appropriate Irrigation System for
Greenhouse Tomato Production in Soilless Media, by Alagha, S.A. and
Sangodoyin, A.Y, September 2013

Introduction
Drip irrigation is an irrigation technique which minimizes the use of water and
fertilizer through permitting water to drip slowly to the roots of plants, both onto the
soil floor or without delay onto the root zone, through a network of valves, pipes,
tubing, and emitters. Drip irrigation is usually appropriate in regions wherein water
supplies are confined, or recycled water is used for irrigation. Careful observation of all
the relevant elements like land topography, soil, water, crop and agro-climatic situations
are had to determine the most appropriate drip irrigation device and additives to be used
in a selected installation. Fertilizer savings of up to 95% are being stated from latest
subject tests the use of drip fertigation and gradual water delivery as compared to timed-
launch and irrigation by way of micro spray heads. If properly designed, installed, and
managed, drip irrigation may help acquire water conservation by means of lowering
evaporation and deep drainage while compared to different sorts of irrigation which
include flood or overhead sprinklers considering the fact that water may be more
precisely carried out to the plant roots. In addition, drip can remove many sicknesses
which can be unfold through water contact with the foliage.

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
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Methodology
Two irrigation systems particularly sprinkler (s) and drip (d) had been produced,
calibrated and applied to fertigate tomato planted in six soilless media specifically:
Washed sand (T1), sterilized sawdust (T2), grinded coconut fiber (T3), sand/sawdust
(1:1) (T4), sawdust/coconut fiber (1:1) (T5) and coconut fiber/sand (1:1) (T6). Every
soilless medium was replicated three instances under every irrigation system inside a
greenhouse. The experiment become a 2 x 6 factorial mix with three replicates, using a
Randomized complete Block design. Water was stored in huge transparent rubber tank
of a 1000 l potential at a completely high elevation of 4.5 m to provide the excessive
pressure required by each system to deliver the water (Plate 1). Liquid fertilizer (Boost
Extra – N: P: K: 20:20:20) was carried out thru the irrigation water (fertigation) at the
amount of 60 ml to 15l as suggested by the manufacturer. The nutrient content inside
the fertigated water was monitored by measuring the pH and EC values of the water
before application. The pH and the EC of the water numerous among 7.3 to 7.7 and
0.27 dS/m to 0.3 dS/m respectively. Water Use Efficiencies (WUE) of tomato below
the two irrigation systems was calculated at the same time as yield and percentage of
marketable fruits of tomato had been determined at maturation. Marketability of tomato
became determined through physical observation of tomato fruit for mechanical harm,
insect attack or rot (as a result of water application directly on tomato fruits at
maturation under sprinkler irrigation). The test was repeated for 2 developing cycles.
Data have been analyzed the usage of ANOVA at p = 0.05. Price advantage analyses of
drip as opposed to micro sprinkler irrigation system was evaluated. Eighteen rubber
cans were placed at an equidistance of 35 cm alongside each of the 3 parallel perforated
pipe laterals containing six nozzles each. The laterals were spaced at 35cm to each
other, all corresponding to within and among row spacing’s respectively. The entire
plan was on a typical stage with the drip irrigation unit. The volume of water gotten by
each can following three minutes was recorded from which sprinkler discharge, Q was

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
26
determined. Application rate for every discharge was computed using the relationship
given by Robert and James (2001).

Materials
Overhead tank to supply water and fertilizer and to give the required operating
pressure. Main supply pipeline comprising of 25 mm diameter and 9.8 m long PVC
pipe. One-gauge valve mounted at 1.5 m peak on the main supply pipeline beneath the
overhead tank. Three 20 mm diameter risers every of a 100 cm height. Three gauge
valves (set up at middle of every riser) for controlling the discharge rate of the
sprinklers in each lateral. Three 1.25 cm diameter perforated pipe sprinkler that sprayed
water in a non-overlap sample at fairly uniform price which serve as the laterals.
Eighteen graduated plastic cans of the same volume for uniformity coefficient
determination. Materials used include the following: 9? block Scaffold (4.5m high),
Storage tank (1000 l), Perforated pipe sprinklers, Measuring cylinder, Stopwatch,
Rubber cans (location, a = 2.83 x 10-3m 2) r = 0.03 m.

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
27
Data

Table 1.5: Yield and quality of tomato planted in various soilless media

Table 1.6: Procedure for estimating Benefit from tomato per year while using Sprinkler and Drip

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1.8.5 Design Proposal of Drip Irrigation System for an Efficient
Management of Irrigation Water for MAIZE Improved Seeds Production
in a Part of Seeds Farm of Loumbila, by Bamouni Souleymane, June 2011

Introduction
With the droughts of 1970s, methods had been evolved concerning the control
of irrigation water with a view to enhance agricultural productivity. Certainly,
numerous types of irrigation schemes had been then created, such as the big schemes
and the construction of many small dams and related perimeters, however the effects
thus far were mixed with inadequate infrastructure valued and whose management is
basically in deficit. Mastering from these shortcomings and boundaries of these
specific sorts of irrigation schemes in a context of poverty and about the patience of
climate conditions and low productiveness of rainfed agriculture, the authorities
determined to check its alternatives and tips and described a countrywide approach for
sustainable irrigated agriculture.

Methodology
The methodology used for the observe comprises four levels. The subject of the
thesis is “Design proposal of Drip Irrigation system for an efficient management of
irrigation water for maize improved seeds production in a part of seeds farm of
Loumbila”. The web page is a part of the seed farm of Loumbila which is no extra
practical. This part of the irrigation gadget of twelve ha which is completely degraded
become chosen as the examine site. Portion of the study site in blocks and plot which
helped to design the machine to a plot after which confirm its capability on a ha on each
block. Literature evaluate changed into to search and examine a number of papers and
books managing irrigation troubles in trendy, but additionally drip irrigation purposes
specifically. This literature along with net research allowed us to have facts and

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
29
understand the topic, challenge of our examine in all edges. The literature overview and
software program clearly helped us to acquire statistics and standard facts about
irrigation. It has additionally helped to give a top level view of irrigation in Burkina
Faso.

Materials
The type of drip line chosen for the design is Streamline 80 d.16 q.1,49 s. 0,4
(2000). The spacing between crop lines is 0.8 m. Therefore, we need a total length of
three thousand one hundred twenty-five meters of drip line on a surface of 0.25 ha. The
length of the head pipe at the plot is fifty m and the type is PE DB PFA 4 DN 75. These
characteristics are summarized in the following table:

Table 1.7: Characteristics of materials and equipment used

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30
Table 1.8: Characteristics of the pipe

Data
Table 1.9: Different volume of water

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31
CHAPTER TWO
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Figure 2.1: Conceptual Framework

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32
CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Design

The researchers used an Action Research Design for the study because the
researchers created a small-scale version of a drip irrigation system for the community.
It is to make an action for the farmers to minimize their workloads and to lessen the
time they spend in a day. It also develops a better innovation for them to be more
productive with the use of this study. With the help of experimental research method,
the researchers conducted data gathering, observations, tests and trials to prove the
hypothesis of the study. These methods helped the researchers know on how the design
can improve for better usage. The drip irrigation system done is to understand the
impact to the plants and to know whether the study is effective and more cost efficient.
It is to help the people improve the agricultural needs of the community.

3.2 Sources of Data

Philippines is known for its wealthy supply of resources, ranging from natural
and artificial; particularly human-made products. Way back the earlier years up to the
present time, they were already known for their products that were exported throughout
the world that made them popular because of their high-quality goods and products. An
area where the Philippines made its biggest mark is in Agriculture. Before the
Spaniards colonized and influenced them with their own traditions and beliefs, they
were already striving in farming and made it their primary source of income. Because

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION

33
of their knowledge in agriculture, they were even invited overseas for them to teach and
educate other cultures on how to succeed in farming. Up to the present day, farming is
still a vital part on the economy of the country.

Due to the uncertainties of the world, natural resources are being limited and
forced to reduce their consumption mostly on water, which as a matter of fact is an
important part of life and in agriculture. As a proposed solution and innovation for the
future, drip irrigation shall be introduced and utilized. It is a modern way and approach
to farming. In this method it is not only limited to one plant but also is as flexible and
can be used to different crops as much as possible. Its water usage will be based on
what crops will be planted because different plants need different amount of water in a
day. The rate of flow of each emitter will be adjustable depending on the needs and
type of plants and crops. The researchers have noticed that most of the cultivator used a
lot of water that the crop needs, they were immersing the crops with water taking more
of what they need. They also tend to distribute water in ununiformed manner also
makes one portion receive larger water compared to the other. In reality different crops
and plants have different amount of water needed. A specific produce needs a certain
amount of water compared to a different type of produce. It is also an important aspect
to consider especially in conserving the water resources.

3.3 Participants

Drip Irrigation will be most beneficial to the farmers due to its time saving
feature. It also decreases weed and disease pressure because it keeps water off the plant
canopy, thus reducing foliar disease development on many plants. Both of these
benefits can lead to reduced pesticide use resulting to chemical and labor savings. It is
adaptable; Drip systems are suitable for uneven topography and oddly shaped fields.

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34
For some fields, this serves as an advantage over surface irrigation because of high land
leveling costs and issues caused by disturbing soil profiles. It also has some advantages
over sprinkler irrigation on small and odd shaped fields because the poorest uniformity
with sprinkler irrigation occurs at field edges caused by lack of proper application
overlap from sprinklers. Taking these considerations, it is applicable to small scale
farmers or in even a home based-garden. Edzan Farm will definitely gain in the system
considering having an existing water pump lessens the total cost of the system. It is an
important factor since the total area of the farm that will be supplied with water and the
production of crops in the farm is continuous all year.

3.4 Proposed Design

Figure 3.1: Proposed Design

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35
3.5 Materials

3.5.1 Irrigation Tank

55 Gallons Water Barrel
A tank was built throughout a slope with the intention to gather and store water
by way of taking advantage of nearby mounds and depressions. Water tanks are used to
provide storage of water to be used in lots of applications, drinking water, irrigation
agriculture, fire suppression, agricultural farming, both for vegetation and farm animals,
chemical production, food preparation as well as many other uses. Water tank
parameters consist of the overall layout of the tank, and choice of construction
materials, linings. Earthen pots additionally feature as water storages. Water tanks are
an efficient manner to help growing nations to save clean water.

3.5.2 Emitters
Drip emitters launch water to the plants from the mainline tubing. The emitters
can be punched immediately into the mainline or can be inserted into the end of a length
of 1/4″ tubing for vegetation that are not near the mainline. This is the most practical
manner to emit water to the vegetation when they are no longer evenly spaced. Pressure
compensating drip emitters supply a particular amount of water every time, despite the
fact that there are adjustments in pressure.

Emitters are available in a selection of various flow rates. The maximum
common flow rates are: 2.0 liters/hour – 1/2 gallon in keeping with hour, 4.0 liters/hour
– 1 gallon per hour and 8.0 liters/hour – 2 gallons per hour. Emitters are categorized
into groups primarily based on how their layout type and the method they use to modify

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36
pressure. However, a hole alone does no longer work properly. Unless the hole is
extremely small, the water has a tendency to forcefully shoot out of it like a tiny fire
nozzle and way too much water will pop out. More importantly, there is a little
uniformity of flow when using a simple hole. When there is a long pipe with holes
drilled in it, the holes at the end nearest the water supply will have a massive water flow
from each other, even as those at the far end could have a very small flow. Considering
the usage of a simple hole in a pipe does no longer work very well, the early pioneers of
drip irrigation began playing around with mechanical devices that might higher alter the
flow.

These devices were given the name “emitters” or occasionally “drippers”. The
emitters are mounted on the pipe and act as small throttles, assuring that a uniform rate
of flow is emitted. Some are constructed into the pipe or tubing, others attach to it using
a barb or threads. The emitter reduces and regulates the amount of water discharged.

3.5.3 Tubing
1/2 in. PVC Pipe (main pipe)
5/8 in. flexible hose (lateral line)
Polyethylene tubing is the spine of any drip irrigation system. The poly tubing
transports the water out of the source in the plants. The water is then released by using
emitters, drip lines, sprayers, or sprinklers. Emitters can be manually inserted
immediately into poly mainline tubing with the help of a punch.

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37
3.5.4 Fittings
1/2 inch
Use these drip fittings to connect pieces of tubing together. It is used in pipe
systems to connect straight pipe or tubing sections, adapt to different sizes or shapes
and for other purposes, such as regulating (or measuring) fluid flow.

3.5.5 Valves
Valves are designed to be used with a timer to control an irrigation system. The
timer sends a sign to the valve when to open or close. Select a valve that is well suited
with the timer and the pressure and flow rate of the irrigation system. All in-line valves
are designed for below ground set up and feature pipe threads on each inlet and outlet.

3.5.6 Backflow Prevention
A backflow prevention tool is needed when injecting fertilizers, chemical
substances, or any components into an irrigation system. The backflow prevention tool
prevents water infected with components from flowing back into the drinking or potable
water supply. Many areas require a backflow tool to be mounted on every system
regardless of using fertilizers or chemicals. A backflow preventer is like a one-way
gate for water. Backflow preventers may be as easy as a single test valve that closes
while water flow reverses. A greater complex backflow preventer can be a complicated
device that includes more than one check valves, water launch valves, air vents and/or
systems that permit it to be examined to guarantee it is operating properly.

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION

38
3.5.7 Filters
Filters eliminate sediment and particles that can clog an irrigation system. There
are sort of filters to fulfill the particular desires of the system. Select a filter based
totally on the high-quality of the water supply and the size of the system. It is
encouraged to put in a filter on each irrigation system and will no longer guarantee a
system without the best filter mounted. For drip systems, they are a need to prevent
emitters from becoming plugged. Although small sand particles can pass through the
system without clogging it, they cause wear on the system. Automated valves comprise
very small water passageways in them which can end up plugged resulting inside the
valve failing to either open or close. A small grain of sand stuck in a spray nozzle can
bring about a dry, useless spot in a lawn.

3.6 Procedure

From the container where the water will be stored gate valve, filter, backflow
preventer will be set, the pipes will be connected in a parallel manner or type in a way,
for which water will flow freely and to supply each connecting pipe. The main pipe and
lateral pipes will be laid with caution to ensure that there will be a uniform flow and
distribution of water from each drip hole. The slope of the pipes will be designed as
adjustable and flexible in related to the design of the system. It will be intended in that
way because of the different characteristics and elevation of the land. It also serves as
an advantage especially considering the crops have different heights. PVC pipes or
hose will be utilized. Drip holes of diameter 2-8 mm diameter will be placed and the
spacing of each hole will be dependent on the spaces between planting distance. There
will also be emitters placed inside the drip holes to monitor and control the discharge
water. The drip holes were drilled with a hand drill with a drill size of 28 mm. Lateral
pipes will be connected to have a continuous flow. Fittings were used to connect the

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION

39
extension pipes to the main lateral. Control valves were provided at each treatment
which facilitates the operation of the system according to irrigation time. The layout
and placement of pipes is subjected to changes for the full benefit of the crops and to
attain the projected results.

3.7 Data Analysis Plan

Among the objectives of the study was focused mainly on crop cultivation and
water conservation. Once the drip irrigation is installed, there will be a time allotted to
harvest the crops in able to conduct judgments and compare the end results and
difference in production of the plants between the Traditional Irrigation and Drip
Irrigation. The factors to be considered will be based from its appearance, size, color
and shape. This will also indicate if there will be changes on the growing days of a
crop. The constant monitoring of water consumption every day will also be
implemented and be recorded so that the target consumable water will not exceed
within the limit. For further information, a survey will be conducted among the farmers
of Edzan Farm to determine their preference regarding the installed Drip Irrigation and
its whole effect in their daily life.

3.8 Study Area Description

The study will be conducted in Barangay Paralaya-Manibaug, Porac Pampanga,
in a placed called as Edzan Farm where most of the people who lived and owns land
decided to venture in farming and agriculture. It has been highly affected by the
eruption of the Mount Pinatubo last 1991, it was considered as a stable agricultural
town in the early 19th century that proves the sustainability of crops of the land.

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION

40
3.9 Site Data Collection

During the site visit, there is a certain part of it called as Edzan Farm, where
most of the people in that community engage themselves in farming. The researchers
conducted a simple interview concerning on how they allocate their given resources to
their full use. There was already an existing water pump that supplies water for the
crops and has a flow rate of 0.4254 cu. m. per hr. They have built connecting wells that
are seven to ten meters apart which were constructed nearby the crops so that it will be
easier for the farmers to water the plants. The researchers measured part of the land,
which is approximately eighty square meters. Considering a massive area, it would take
roughly four thousand liters of water per week for that specific land and also
considering the weight of the tanks that the farmer would carry all throughout the day.
To activate the water pump, it consumes an approximately two liters of gas for it to be
set in motion. That two liters of gas would be enough to supply the water for a day.
The farmers would water the crops three times, in the morning, afternoon and before
dawn. The water that would be collected in the morning would be placed in the well for
future uses. There is no approximate number of liters of water that the water pumps
supply a day.

3.10 Limitations

Drip irrigation will be installed with the use of low cost materials that will be
beneficial for the famers of Edzan Farm, watering crops especially for a large area of
land is time consuming and demands a lot of patience and sometimes one man is not
enough to work on the field and needs to have and assistant which makes the farmers
hire workers that would result to reduce their income per month. With the help of this
irrigation system it lessens the workloads of the producers in terms of it supplying

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION

41
water. As we all know it is already projected in the future that there will be a scarcity of
clean and consumable water, it is a must as early as now to educate and propose other
methods on how to reduce the usage of water and how to use water system properly.

Drip irrigation thrives in this aspect because it maximizes the water collected
and also water is delivered directly to the ground’s surface rather than being sprayed up
and out over an area. This direct application of water yields water savings.

3.11 Maintenance

Drip irrigation systems are necessary part of any modern greenhouse facility.
The simplest drip irrigation system includes filter, tubing and emitters (drippers). It
provides a controlled and uniform distribution of water and nutrients among vegetation
placed along the irrigation line. But, emitters are liable to clogging from deposits of
calcium carbonate, algae or micro organism, so irrigation lines require maintenance for
higher and longer service. The drip system filter must be checked each day and wiped
clean if necessary, a good way to utilize disc and screen filters which are available in
the marketplace. despite the fact that, it is relatively advised to use disc filters
considering that they are greater proof against clogging and less complicated to clean
through back flushing. Check lines for leaks which can arise on the pipes.

Prevention is the best way to ensure that the system is working properly. Ensure
the use of appropriate filter for your irrigation water source and regularly clean it as
needed. Drip lines and manifolds should be flushed periodically to remove settled
debris by opening the ends of the emitters. The irrigation water to be used in the drip
system should be evaluated carefully to assess any potential clogging problems.

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION

42
Materials suspended in the water, such as sand, silt, and algae, can block emitter flow
passages or settle out in the drip lines wherever water velocity is low. Injecting a
cleaning compound like chlorine gas or sodium hypochlorite can also clean the line.
Periodic injections of sulfuric or phosphoric acid is used to prevent scaling from hard
water. It should be thoroughly taken into utmost care in able to apply the right amount
and the use the correct injector type. As long as the chlorine is supplied correctly with
the amount needed, there will be no damage to the crop. Moreover, routinely check
drip lines for leakage and repair leaks promptly. Use all chemicals as directed.
Carefully follow all safety precautions when using chemical injects, like chlorine gas, to
prevent human harm is harmful avoid the improper mixture with other substances.

3.12 Durability

Like most everything else, irrigation system components wear out and
eventually fail. Valve diaphragms wear out, filters will be unusable and will have to be
replaced. Poly laterals get pinched through roots, and so does drip tubing.
Occasionally just ought to replace and or repair some components because of age and
some wear out due to incorrect utilization of every material. These are the variables
that cannot determine how long a certain system will last. However with the proper
high-quality of the system, continued guidance and right care for the materials the entire
system could last for at the least of three to five years.

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3.13 Advantages over the other Irrigation System

Table 3.1: Advantages over the other Irrigation System
Types of Irrigation Systems
Surface irrigation Water is sent over and throughout land by means of
gravity, no mechanical pump involved.
Localized irrigation Water is distributed below low pressure, through a piped
network and carried out to every plant.

Drip irrigation
A kind of localized irrigation wherein drops of water are
brought at or near the root of vegetation. in this kind of
irrigation, evaporation and runoff are minimized.

Sprinkler irrigation
Water is sent through overhead high-pressure sprinklers
or weapons from a primary location in the field or from
sprinklers on moving systems.

Center pivot irrigation
Water is distributed with the aid of a system of sprinklers
that circulate on wheeled towers in a circular pattern.
This system is common in flat regions of the United
States.

Lateral move irrigation
Water is shipped through a series of pipes, each with a
wheel and a set of sprinklers, that are turned around
either by means of hand or with a purpose-built
mechanism. The sprinklers circulate a certain distance
throughout the field after which need to have the water
hose reconnected for the next distance. This system tends
to be much less costly but calls for more labor than
others.

Sub-irrigation
Water is distributed across land through elevating the
water table, through a system of pumping stations,
canals, gates, and ditches. This kind of irrigation is best
in regions with high water tables.
Manual irrigation Water is sent throughout land through manual hard work
and watering cans. This system is very labor intensive.

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44
Irrigation systems are categorized in three basic categories or methods: surface,
sprinkle and micro irrigation. The level of irrigation application efficiency is very
important in comparing different irrigation system. The system performance is a degree
of a system’s effectiveness in making use of water to the crop and making it available
inside the crop’s root zone. During the application of the system, it also describes the
losses which occured. Low application efficiencies result in increased water uses and
potential increases in labor and energy expense.

The water use efficiency under conventional manual method of irrigation, which
is very low due to distribution losses. Recognizing the fast decline of irrigation water
potential and increasing demand for water from different sectors, several demand
management strategies and program have been introduced to save water and increase
the existing water use efficiency. One such method introduced relatively recently is
micro-irrigation, which includes both drip and sprinkler method of irrigation. Micro-
irrigation is proved to be an efficient method in saving water and increasing water use
efficiency as compared to the conventional surface method of irrigation, where water
use efficiency is only about 35-40 percent.

Drip, or trickle irrigation, is the system where in water is often and slowly
applied directly on the crop root zone. The concept of this irrigation system is instead
of watering the entire field, only the root zone or surface of the root zone, thus making
water content of the crop root zone at the optimum level. Comparing the drip irrigation
to other types of irrigation, it is one of the most effective type of irrigation. The slow
rate of water application at isolated locations with low pressure and the irrigation of
only a portion of the soil volume in the field can result in relatively low-cost water
delivery systems, as well as reductions in water diversions compared to other irrigation
methods.

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION

45
For the plant to grow properly, the main goal of the drip irrigation system is to
apply the water to the plants when it is most needed. Moreover, it provides a very
favorable moisture level in the soil in which plants can flourish. Both lost and applied
water and meeting the water the crops need, ranges from 80 to 90% efficiency.

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION

46
CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Flow Rates

For the first week the irrigation system would run for one and a half (1.5) hours
that will be divided to three, each hour at different time of the day. For the area and
design given it would take up about 191 emitters. The flow rate in each emitter should
at least be 2 liters/hr. Then the flow rate from the tank itself should be 190.48 liters/hr.
For the second and third week, the irrigation system would also run for one and a half
(1.5) hours, each hour at different time of the day and would also take up 191 emitters.
The flow rate in each emitter should be 8 liters/hr. and in the tank would be 761.90
liters/hr.

Table 4.1: First Drop of Water (20ml)
Emitters 1st Trial 2nd Trial 3rd Trial
1 46.35 sec 28.86 sec 52.86 sec
2 49.68 sec 23.93 sec 59.27 sec
3 46.06 sec 26.21 sec 56.98 sec
4 41.18 sec 24.68 sec 56.15 sec

Table 4.2: Continuous Flow of Water (20ml)
Emitters 1st Trial 2nd Trial 3rd Trial
1 30.10 sec 43.86 sec 60.15 sec
2 39.98 sec 46.99 sec 67.20 sec
3 31.93 sec 42.72 sec 62.39 sec
4 34.80 sec 48.78 sec 65.66 sec

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION

47
4.2 Water Conservation

For a total area of eighty square meter it will be utilized that consists of four
plots, it would need two thousand three hundred sixty eight liters of water for the whole
day according to the farmers. Imagine how much water they would conserve by using
and applying drip irrigation facility. For a pechay plant to grow healthy, it would need
two to three weeks before harvesting.

Amount of water needed per week (According to Chapter 5 of Soil, Crops and Fertilizer
Use)
Crop watering suggestions are often given in terms of inches or millimeters
(mm) of water according to week. One inch (or one mm) of water is same to filling a
flat-bottom tub with 1 inch (or 1 mm) of water. Be aware that these measurements refer
only to the real thickness of the water layer and say nothing in regards to the size of the
tub (or area), nor how deep the water will penetrate in a soil. Regarding of the actual
water volume required per area, here are some very useful conversions:
1 inch of water = 7 gallons (25 liters) in step with rectangular meter 1 millimeter of
water = 1 liter according to square meter

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION

48
Table 4.3: Total Weekly Water Needs (1)
(Includes both plant usage and evaporation from the soil)

Considering it falls under classification “VERY YOUNG PLANTS IN WARM
WEATHER” for the first week, that needs 19-25 liters/sq.m. for a week. And
considering on the second and third week it falls under the classification of “PEAK
USE RATES FOR VEGETABLES IN WARM WEATHER (during flowering, fruiting,
or heading)” it would need 35-50 liters/sq.m. for a week.

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION

49
Table 4.4: Computation Breakdown

For the whole cycle of the pechay from planting to harvesting, there would be a
difference of 29,728 liters of water that would be conserve in a span of three weeks. If
the irrigation system will push through it would save 39,638 liters of water a month or
475,648 liters of water a year.

4.3 Cost and Benefit Analysis

For the installation of the drip irrigation system a water barrel will be used that
costs around P1,000. For the control of the water discharging in the tank ball valve will
be used and costs around P140. Filter for the prevention of hard particles coming from
the underground water from blocking the holes in the drippers will be used and be
attached in the ball valve and costs P350. 1/2″ PVC pipe will be utilized for the main
pipe of the system that costs P53/3m. 5/8″ of flexible hose will be utilized for the 4 pcs
of 16m lateral lines and costs around P44/m. Fittings such as tees costs P8/pc and
elbows P6/pc. Drippers around P1,300 for a 200 pcs of emitters. Backflow preventer
will be used to avoid water coming back out of the tank that costs P280. The overall

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION

50
cost for the drip irrigation for 80 sq. m. area will range around P6,500. The owner of
the land may hire a worker and pay them Php 15.00 per plots, if there will be 4 plots on
their land it would cost Php 60.00 a day, Php 1,800.00 a month and Php 12,600.00 a
year. It would save a lot of money comparing the labor for a year and it would also help
that the system will also be low maintenance that means it will lessen the cost for the
year. The 80 sq. m. area would be able to produce Php 2,400.00 after marketing their
products. It would be consist of either pechay or mustard green, which are being sold
per kilo. The whole block can produce nearly 12-15 kilos per month which will lead in
earning Php 2,400.00. On the other hand, if spinach will be harvested, it will be sold for
about Php 1,400. It would take approximately 2-3 months for the investment of the
farmers to recover.

Table 4.5: Cost and Benefit Analysis
Materials Quantity Price
Irrigation Tank 1 – 55 Gallons Php 1000
Valves 1 Php 140
Emitters 200 – 2L/hr Php 1300
Tubing 1 – 1/2″ PVC pipe
66m – 5/8″ flexible hose
Php 53/6m
Php 44/m
Fittings 5 – 1/2″ tees
4 – 1/2″ elbows
Php 8/pc
Php 6/pc
Filters 1 Php 350
Backflow Prevention 1 Php 280
ESTIMATED PRICE Php 6500

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION

51
CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Conclusion

The research proves that with the right theoretical concepts, the system would
function as to how it was designed. It reduced the amount of water consumed by a
specificied area compared to normal irrigation systems. In addition, it has low cost
materials which are durable and at the same time detachable features that makes easier
to maintain. Furthermore, it made the farmers more productive because of their extra
time that they can allot to other agricultural activities. In line, the farmers also
increased their profit since extra laborers are not needed.

5.2 Recommendations

The researchers recommend to future users of this drip irrigation system to
provide an additional water source. They also have to check the environmental impacts
that can affect by the system. They may purchase materials that are guaranteed to have
the same function as designed in this study.

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
i

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION AND CROP
CULTIVATION IN EDZAN FARM BRGY. MANIBAUG PARALAYA PORAC,
PAMPANGA

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A Thesis Presented to
The Civil Engineering Department
School of Engineering and Architecture
Holy Angel University

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree
Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering

By
Marc Aldrine D. Cortez
John Paolo C. Dela Cruz
Rhenzo S. Manusig
Jerica V. Nucup
Anna Katrina A. Ocampo
Ricky Y. Pamintuan

Engr. Marc Neil V. Adizas
Instructor

Engr. Marc Neil V. Adizas
Thesis Adviser

October 4, 2018

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
ii
APPROVAL SHEET

The thesis hereto titled
DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION AND CROP
CULTIVATION IN EDZAN FARM BRGY. MANIBAUG PARALAYA PORAC,
PAMPANGA
prepared and submitted by Marc Aldrine D. Cortez, John Paolo C. Dela Cruz, Rhenzo
S. Manusig, Jerica V. Nucup, Anna Katrina A. Ocampo and Ricky Y. Pamintuan in
partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Bachelor of Science in Civil
Engineering has been examined and is recommended for acceptance and approval.

PANEL OF EXAMINERS

Approved by the Committee

_______________________ _______________________
Panelist Panelist

_______________________ _______________________
Panelist Panelist

Accepted and approved in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
Bachelor of Science in Civil Engineering.

_______________________ _______________________
Dr. Jay Jack R. Manzano Engr. Renato S. David, Chairperson
Dean, School of Engineering and Architecture Civil Engineering Department

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
iii
ABSTRACT

Irrigation of plants is usually a very time-consuming activity to be done in a reasonable
amount of time. Manibaug in the early years said to have a fertile land and abundant
agriculture. Edzan Farm is a place where locals farm and have their own land or
somehow rented areas to plant on and make as their main source of their livelihood.
Irrigation in Edzan Farm is not existent, traditional way of watering the crops is their
only means. It requires a large amount of human resources in order to plant and water
each layer of plants. Huge amount of water and energy are being wasted each day. The
researchers thought about a particular output that can help and provide the needs of the
residents and the community. The research is about applying drip irrigation system in a
specific community wherein many plants need enough source of water in order to grow
healthy and provide nutrients that the plant provides and to have a system that will
make the work much easier and done in a simpler manner. A pipe line system has been
designed to convey water from underground to the plot. The pipe line system was fully
designed with pipe of half inch as the main pipe of the system of diameter that makes it
possible to supply water with a discharge of 0.00709 cu. m. per minute and five eighths
inch of flexible hose where emitters will be attached in order to supply the water to the
plants by means of drip irrigation with a length of sixteen meters. Using this system,
one can save manpower and water to improve production and ultimately profit. The use
of the drip irrigation system help the community save more water than the traditional
way of watering their plants. The research proves that with the right theoretical
concepts, the system would function as to how it was designed. It reduced the amount
of water consumed by a specified area compared to normal irrigation systems. In
addition, it has low cost materials which are durable and at the same time detachable
features that makes easier to maintain. Furthermore, it made the farmers more
productive because of their extra time that they can allot to other agricultural activities.
In line, the farmers also increased their profit since extra laborers are needed.

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
iv
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The researchers would like to express their deepest appreciation and gratitude to
God first and for most who gave them the strength and courage in facing all the
challenges and hindrances that they have encountered in doing the research and for
being with them from the beginning up until the final stage. The research will not be
possible without the help and guidance of their instructor, Engineer Mark Gibson Pusod
in teaching different techniques and for sharing his ideas for the betterment of the
research and constructive comments that helped the researchers come up with new
ideas. To their supportive instructors, Engineer Joselton Baking and Engineer Faustino
Castaneda, for sharing their knowledge and giving wise suggestions that helped in the
improvement to the design of the research. To their never ending support of their
dearest adviser, Engineer Marc Neil Adizas, for giving tips and techniques in making
the research a success.
The researchers would also like to thank the officials of Brgy. Manibaug
Paralaya for leading the way to Edzan Farm and to the residents of the farm for
allowing them to choose the said community as their beneficiary for the research.
Special thanks to Mr. Efren Dubibar and Mr. Allan Duferto for their hospitality and the
kind gestures that they showed during the ocular visit and initial survey in the said area.
Their cooperation means a lot and takes a big part in doing the research.
The researchers would like to express their appreciation to their respective
families who encouraged and prayed for them throughout the time of the research. The
research is heartily dedicated to their parents for their hard work and support they have
given throughout the studies in the university and to their friends who stayed with them,
supported and gave them strength in times of hardships and sleepless nights. All the
efforts of the people mentioned above, are all appreciated.
That in all things, God may be glorified!

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
v
TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………..i
APPROVAL SHEET ………………………………………………………………………………………….ii
ABSTRACT ……………………………………………………………………………………………………..iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ………………………………………………………………………………….iv
TABLE OF CONTENTS …………………………………………………………………………………….v

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION …………………………………………………………………………..1
1.1 Background of the Community ……………………………………………………….1
1.2 Background of the Study ………………………………………………………………..3
1.3 Statement of the Problem ……………………………………………………………….6
1.4 Objectives of the Study ………………………………………………………………….6
1.5 Significance of the Study ……………………………………………………………….7
1.6 Scope and Limitations ……………………………………………………………………7
1.7 Hypothesis ……………………………………………………………………………………8
1.8 Review of Related Literature ………………………………………………………….8

CHAPTER 2 CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK ……………………………………………………31

CHAPTER 3 METHODOLOGY ………………………………………………………………………..32
3.1 Research Design ………………………………………………………………………….32
3.2 Sources of Data …………………………………………………………………………..32
3.3 Participants …………………………………………………………………………………33
3.4 Proposed Design ………………………………………………………………………….34
3.5 Materials …………………………………………………………………………………….35
3.6 Procedure ……………………………………………………………………………………38
3.7 Data Analysis Plan ………………………………………………………………………39
3.8 Study Area Description ………………………………………………………………..39
3.9 Site Data Collection ……………………………………………………………………..40
3.10 Limitations ………………………………………………………………………………….40
3.11 Maintenace …………………………………………………………………………………41
3.12 Durability ……………………………………………………………………………………42
3.13 Advantages over the other Irrigation System …………………………………..43

CHAPTER 4 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION ……………………………………………………..46
4.1 Flow Rates ………………………………………………………………………………….46
4.2 Water Conservation ……………………………………………………………………..47
4.3 Cost and Benefit Analysis …………………………………………………………….49

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
vi
CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION …………………………………51

LIST OF REFERENCES …………………………………………………………………………………..vii
APPENDICES ………………………………………………………………………………………………..viii
LIST OF TABLES ………………………………………………………………………………..viii
LIST OF FIGURES …………………………………………………………………………………ix

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
vii
LIST OF REFERENCES

Ahmed Ibrahim A.I., Mutaz Mohamed A.M.O., Omer Osman O.B, Ahmed Ismat M.A
et.al (2016). Design and Development of GSM Based Automated Spray
Irrigation System Prototype.

Alagha, S.A1 and Sangodoyin, A.Y2 (2013). Water management and appropriate
irrigation system for greenhouse tomato production in soilless media.
International Journal of Agriculture and Food Security. Vol. 1(1), pp. 001-011.

Bamouni Souleymane (2011). Design proposal of drip irrigation system for an efficient
management of irrigation water for maize improved seeds production in a part
of seeds farm of loumbila.

Evans Asenso (2011). Design and evaluation of a simple pvc drip irrigation system
using akposoe maize variety as a test crop.

Philippine Rice Research Institute (2010). Improving Agricutural Productivity in
Pampanga. Rice Technology Bulletin Series (ISSN 0117-9799).

Pragna Guguloth (2016). Hydraulic Performance Evaluation of Drip Irrigation System
for Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L).

Richard, Moyo (2005). Impact and sustainability of drip irrigation kits, in the semi-arid
Lower Mzingwane Catchment, Limpopo Basin, Zimbabwe: University of
Zimbabwe.

Simon Haidula (2016). Irrigation water use and vegetable production efficiency
assessment between sprinkler and drip irrigation systems at North Central Namibia
(NCN).

http://www.nzdl.org/gsdlmod?e=d-00000-00—off-0hdl–00-0—-0-10-0—0—0direct-
10—4——-0-1l–11-en-50—20-about—00-0-1-00-0–4—-0-0-11-10-0utfZz-8-
00&a=d&cl=CL1.16&d=HASH412cd503b5262205ac14c6.7.4

http://www.harbest.com.ph/document/PATAK%20ANI%20NEW.pdf

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
viii
APPENDICES

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1.1: Average discharge of emitters at different operating pressures ………………..13
Table 1.2: Relation between pressure and discharge of different emitters …………………14
Table 1.3: Developed models for the pressure discharge relationship ………………………15
Table 1.4: Performance criteria determination of flow through the pipe …………………..24
Table 1.5: Yield and quality of tomato planted in various soilless media …………………27
Table 1.6: Procedure for estimating Benefit from tomato per year …………………………..28
Table 1.7: Characteristics of materials and equipment used ……………………………………30
Table 1.8: Characteristics of the pipe …………………………………………………………………..30
Table 1.9: Different volume of water …………………………………………………………………..30
Table 3.1: Advantages over the other Irrigation System …………………………………………43
Table 4.1: First Drop of Water (20ml) …………………………………………………………………46
Table 4.2: Continuous Flow of Water (20ml) ……………………………………………………….46
Table 4.3: Total Weekly Water Needs …………………………………………………………………48
Table 4.4: Computation Breakdown ……………………………………………………………………49
Table 4.5: Cost and Benefit Analysis …………………………………………………………………..50

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1.1: Layout plan of the experiment ……………………………………………………………13
Figure 1.2: Layout of experimental field ………………………………………………………………21
Figure 2.1: Conceptual Framework ……………………………………………………………………..31
Figure 3.1: Proposed Design ………………………………………………………………………………34

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CHAPTER ONE
INTRODUCTION

1.1 Background of the Community

The place barrio of Manibaug in Porac Pampanga was comprised in its whole
territories of what is now the barrios of Manibaug Pasig, Libutad, and Paralaya. Its
boundaries start from Sta. Cruz and end on barrio Maliwalo in Bacolor, on the north
with Angeles. The barrio of Manibaug is said to be peaceful place, thickly forested,
fertile and with enough supply of water for irrigation. Due to its fertility, they use
grazing of horses, cows, carabaos, goats, and other fowls for pasturage, they also plant
sugarcane, root-crops, and in the part of lowlands rice and vegetables. The barrio of
Manibaug has its attribute due to the numerous kind of insect similar to a black beetle
that pested on palm trees that they called them “Sibaung”. Between 1700 – 1800
periods, more people began to trickle and permanently settled on the locality, their
livelihood was purely agriculture and later on pioneer tinsmith began their trade due to
demand on farm implements.

The partitioning of Manibaug began with the arrival of the Americans. Due to
the increasing number of the immigrants living in Manibaug, the barrio official can no
longer contain the need of its jurisdiction. Because of this, Manibaug was divided into
two separate barrios. One of the two barrios is Manibaug-Pasig, Pasig means
“riverbank”. The name Pasig originated due to its proximity to the river Pasig in Porac.
Barrio Pasig is located along the western part of Manibaug. The Boundaries of Pasig
starts from the Roman Catholic parish church in Manibaug and ends in Mancatian
Bridge 1. It has a total land area of one thousand twenty one hectare. As of the census

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1990 its population was placed at a total of five thousand two hundred eighty two or a
total eight hundred seventy six households. But after the onslaught of lahar brought by
the Pinatubo eruption in 1991 its population has been reduced to seven hundred thirty
eight or an equivalent of one hundred seventy one households as of the census of 2000.
The barrio is one of the rural barangays of Porac that is mostly planted to sugarcane and
rice or “palay”. Manibaug Pasig had its own Elementary School with eight academic
building and one home economics building. And the other barrio is Manibaug-
Paralaya, Paralaya comes from the two Pampango term which are “Para” meaning to or
towards and “Alaya” which means east or eastern. Its boundary starts from the church
and ends in Sta. Cruz in the east, on the north by Pulungmaba, on the south by
Calzadangbayu, on the west by Manibaug- Pasig. The total land area of Barrio Paralaya
is three hundred ninety seven hectares with a total population of five thousand one
hundred thirteen as of the census of 1990 or a total of nine hundred households. Barrio
Paralaya also had four Academic building and one Home Economics building. The
livelihood of Barrio Paralaya also comes from planting sugarcane and “palay”. Some
area of the land plants cassava and variety of vegetables.

In 1945, after the American Liberation, more migrants dwell in Manibaug-Pasig
due to the establishment of Clark Air Base. This significant boom in local economy
about the growth of population in the area. The growing population caused the
Manibaug-Pasig to separate into two, one for west called Barrio Pasig and one for the
north called Barrio Libutad. Today, the Barrio Libutad has been on the road to
progress, most tract of land has been transformed into subdivision and other resident
have started to do business in the barrio.

Manibaug consists of abundant areas and lands for agriculture and farming. It
has been their main source of living and will never be apart from their lives. Edzan

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3
Farm is one of the areas where some local farmers live and cultivate their crops.
Underground water is their main source through where they get to water their crops.
Irrigation in Edzan Farm is not existent, man labor is the only means of watering their
crops. Huge amount of water, time and energy are being wasted each day.

There are varieties of plants and crops that the farm grows and cultivates in the
Edzan Farm. Lettuce, spinach and pechay are some of the crops that farmers plant.
Pechay is a common crop that Edzan Farm cultivates. Also known as Chinese cabbage,
mustard cabbage or pak choi, pechay is a native of the place. It can grow to a maximum
size of twenty centimeter but mostly it grows around ten centimeter in length. The leaf
shape of this plant is round and their roots are mostly thin, and not long. The leafy
green crop is tolerant of many soil types and temperature zones, requiring little more
than full sun. Pechay leaves are quick growers, which means they are ready for harvest
in as little as one month. All crops in the farm are being watered three times a day, one
at dawn, then in the afternoon and lastly before the sunsets. Once the crops have been
harvested, farmers sell it to the public market vendors and from there another batch of
plants and crops will be planted.

1.2 Background of the Study

Water is a resource that all living spices needed. It is therefore very precious
and has to be used for moderation to be preserve for the generations to come.
Agriculture is an industry that uses a lot of water. Most of the time this resource is not
used efficiently and substantial amount of water is wasted. Water conservation is the
most cost – effective and environmentally sound way to reduce our demand for water.
Water conservation is the preservation, control and management of water resources.
Water conservation is important on site to lessen the amount of water used and to

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4
contribute to the sustainable use of water. It is required in order to ensure the
conservative use of water during drought and other water shortages as well as reducing
pressure on rivers and streams used for water abstraction.

Water conservation is the use and control of water for the coolest of all clients.
It is used in agriculture, industry, and the home. Human necessities for agricultural
production, flood manage, fish and wildlife management, navigation, commercial
production, and plenty of other uses have amended natural hydrologic procedures. The
hydrosphere refers to that part of Earth that is made of water, along with all oceans,
lakes, rivers, streams, glaciers, and underground water. Less than three percent of the
water of Earth is freshwater, a quantity that consists of polar ice caps, glaciers,
groundwater, surface water of rivers and freshwater lakes, and even atmospheric water.
But, the quantity of freshwater useable by way of people and other contributors of the
biosphere is much less than 0.7 percent of the whole (that is water in rivers and lakes,
and inside the ground). This fairly small quantity of available freshwater is recycled
and purified through the action of methods in the hydrologic cycle, which includes
evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and percolation via the ground. All existence
relies upon on the availability of freshwater.

Irrigation is the application of controlled amounts of water to vegetation at
needed periods. Irrigation allows to develop agricultural crops, preserve landscapes,
and revegetate disturbed soils in dry regions and at some point of periods of insufficient
rainfall. Irrigation also has other uses in crop production, consisting of frost protection,
suppressing weed growth in grain field sand stopping soil consolidation.

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5
There are different types of irrigation: The Surface Irrigation in which water is
distributed over and across land by gravity, no mechanical pump involved. The soil
acts as the developing medium in which water is saved and the conveyance medium
over which water flows as it spreads and infiltrates. The Sprinkler Irrigation in which
water is distributed by overhead high-pressure sprinklers or guns from a central location
in the field or from sprinklers. Drip Irrigation is a type of localized irrigation in which
drops of water are delivered at or near the root of plants. Lateral Move systems are
selfpropelled irrigation systems which apply water to pasture or crop, generally from
above the canopy.

Drip irrigation is a way of controlled irrigation wherein water is slowly added to
the root system of multiple vegetation. In this approach, water is either dripped onto the
soil surface above the roots, or immediately to the root area. It is often a technique
chosen over surface irrigation as it enables to reduce water evaporation. Drip irrigation
is introduced to plant roots through a chain of pipes, tubes, and valves. These
components, controlled with the aid of emitters and pumps, permit water to be focused
in a specific area. In addition, drip systems can contain liquid fertilizer into the
irrigation water.

Drip irrigation systems can help lessen evaporation and runoff and contribute to
water conservation. But, before this system can work successfully it ought to be well
installed and controlled. The two major types of drip irrigation are: surface drip
irrigation wherein the water is added to the surface of the soil directly above the root
system of the plants. This specific kind of drip irrigation is especially used on high-
value plants. Second is the subsurface drip irrigation in which the water is applied
immediately to the root system. This kind is used specifically in developing row crops.

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1.3 Statement of the Problem

Irrigation of plants is mostly a very time-consuming activity, to be carried out in
a reasonable quantity of time, it requires a large amount of human assets. Traditionally,
all the steps had been completed by people. These days, some farmers and owners of
big farmlands use systems that help their people and farmers to water their plants in the
maximum efficient manner. Using such systems results to the reduction of the time
required to water the vegetation and a decrease in energy utilization. However within
the case of the farmers in Edzan Farm, such system does no longer exist. Former
approach of planting and watering vegetation is being used up until now. Water is one
of the resources which can be used excessively. Nowadays, the technique that local
farmers used to water their vegetation like in Edzan Farm losses a large amount of
water since the amount of water given is in excess of the plant needs. The present day
perception of water is that of a free, renewable resource that can be utilized in
abundance. However, this is not reality. Water must no longer be taken for granted for
it can be long past in some time later.

1.4 Objectives of the Study

The research aims to improve and stabilize the crop yields of farmers in Edzan
Farm in Manibaug, Porac through the implementation of sustainable drip irrigation
system and the promotion of water resource conservation practices that optimize the
volume and timing of water distribution. The research intends to produce a type of
irrigation system where it conserves water for the farmers using water pump then stores
water in a container then supply water for the crops. The research also aims to
minimize the cost of labor for the farmers.

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1.5 Significance of the Study

The study of Drip Irrigation with the use of water pump will help the farmers
first and foremost, they will have a system that will make their work much easier and
done in a simpler manner. It enables them to produce more goods than usual comparing
to the original way because it will take lesser time compared to watering the crops one
by one which limits the farmers to do other things. With the help of the drip irrigation
they could widen their area for the crops so that they can harvest more goods in the end.
It also saves them from other expenses, because the materials that are going to be used
in the irrigation system are locally made, which means they are low-cost but at the same
time efficient and capable of supplying the whole farm with water. Time is very
important for everyone, it is also beneficial if they can save time and effort through the
help of the drip system and not spend the whole day constantly supplying water to the
crops. And most importantly it also conserves water. It is already projected that in the
year 2025, there will be a shortage of clean and consumable water for everyone. It is
necessary as early as now to preserve and recycle our resources to prevent such hazard.
Almost 80% of Earth is composed of water, it means water is vital for survival and it
must be taken into consideration.

1.6 Scope and Limitations

Drip Irrigation is applicable to any type of soil to be used but crops are limited
because some plants or crops cannot be irrigated by drip irrigation and requires a lot of
amount of water. As known water is vital for everyone and that includes plants and
crops. To attain a fruitful harvest, it is significant to supply them enough water and
care. The water that will be used for irrigation will be coming from the ground water
table. A water pump is already installed near the area and will be transferring water to a

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8
container. Groundwater is fairly clean and can be used to water crops and soil. There
will be holes placed on the pipes to act as outlet for the water to stream out of the pipes.
The materials that are going to be used are low cost and low maintenance and can be
purchase in the Philippines. It gives the farmers gain more profit by exerting less effort
and that would give them more time while conserving water for the future. When the
container empties, they can pump water and fill the container. This type of irrigation is
applicable during dry season but it is also considered during rainy season for it
availability and convenience.

1.7 Hypothesis

The drip irrigation system will help the farmers to increase their crop yields and
at the same time consumed less water than the traditional way of watering the crops.
The system will also reduce the duration of work and saved manpower. It will also
decrease the distribution of wedges for the laborer.

1.8 Review of Related Literature

1.8.1 Hydraulic Performance Evaluation of Drip Irrigation System for
Cabbage, by Pragna Guguloth, 2016

Introduction
Water scarcity and shortage of water aid management technologies are not
unusual demanding situations confronted by means of majority of small and marginal
farmers in speedy growing international locations like India. With a purpose to resolve
the hassle of water scarcity in agriculture, it is vital to increase water-saving

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
9
management technology. Irrigation water is provided to the plants/vegetation to
replenish soil moisture at root-region while herbal rainfall is inadequate or poorly
disbursed. The green usage of irrigation water is viable by using the adoption of high
green irrigation gadget, consisting of, micro irrigation machine. Drip irrigation
technique is one of the first-class water software methods which have been used within
the world among the other irrigation strategies due to its desirable and high uniformity
and excessive water use efficiency. In drip irrigation system water is applied frequently
and small amounts of irrigation water at required points of a field surface/subsurface
near the plants. With drip irrigation, water and fertilizer requirements can be applied
directly to the plant root zone with minimum losses which is called fertigation,
maintaining uniform moisture in the soil profile. In addition, drip irrigation system has
the advantage of fitting to difficult topography. Drip irrigation has advantages of less
hindrance with cultural operations and improved cultural practices, allows field
operations even during irrigation, less nutrient and chemical leaching and deep
percolation, reduced weed germination and growth, reduced pest and disease damages
due to drier and less humid crop canopies, warmer soils, no soil crusting due to
irrigation, and also well suited to widely spaced crops.

“A successful performance of drip irrigation system depends on the physical and
hydraulic characteristics of the drip tubing “according to AL Amound, 1995. “A best
and desirable feature of trickle irrigation is that the uniform distribution of water is
possible, which is one of the most important parameters in design, management, and
adoption of this system. Ideally, a well-designed system applies nearly equal amount of
water to each plant maintaining uniformity, meets its water requirements, and is
economically feasible. Efficiency of drip irrigation system depends on application
uniformity which can be evaluated by direct measurement of emitter flow rates. The
main factors affecting drip irrigation uniformity are manufacturing variations in
emitters, pressure regulators, and pressure variations caused by elevation changes,

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
10
friction head losses throughout the pipe network, emitter sensitivity to pressure,
irrigation water temperature changes and emitter clogging” according to Mizyed and
Kruse, 1989. Therefore, Therefore, evaluation of hydraulics of drip irrigation system
helps in improving the design of drip irrigation system and better distribution of
irrigation water.

Uniform distribution of water system approach that every single one of the
plants receive an equal amount of water. In a poorly designed system, one cannot get
uniform distribution of water, therefore it’d both beneath irrigate or over irrigate the
field. under both instances, plants will either suffer the dry or the moist stresses. And a
properly designed trickle system, uniform distribution of water is ensured which results
in higher yields.

The machine performance is related to system uniformity and water losses that
can be evaluated by using direct measurements of emitter flow rates. If, the water
losses are excessive or distribution uniformity is bad, it might result in low system
efficiency. but, the distribution of water as measured within the subject does not really
represent the distribution of water within the soil. As a count number of fact, the real
soil moisture distribution is the result of some aspect motion of water in the soil far
away from the emission point. therefore, it’s far feasible to irrigate with a mile’s lower
uniformity co-efficient below many conditions without tormented by yield discounts.
The uniformity co-efficient is probably laid low with the duration of lateral itself.
Longer laterals end result stress drops within the line and purpose bad uniformity closer
to the tail ends. Distribution of moisture beneath trickle irrigation relies upon upon the
uniformity of application, one of the critical factors for the clothier and the consumer.
The preliminary value of the gadget, operating price, and crop yield reaction to
irrigation, all are associated with the uniformity of water utility. however, right design

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11
recommendations are prerequisite for a better system overall performance. As quickly
as a system has been established in the field, the assessment should be carried and
periodically repeated with time if the fine overall performance is desired.

In drip irrigation the water movement and its distribution in the soil depends
upon many parameters like soil type, crop cultivars, crop planting pattern, discharge
rate of emitters, amount of water applied, and climatic factors, etc. While planning drip
irrigation system for a crop it is imperative to select: (i) emitters of size that discharge
water at a desired rate, (ii) irrigation supplies that render a wetted soil-volume sufficient
to fulfill plants’ evaporative demands and (iii) a planting pattern that reduces the cost of
initial investment without adversely affecting crop yield.

Drip irrigation is arguably the maximum green approach of supplying water to
trees, plants, gardens and landscapes. The performance of a well-designed drip
irrigation device can reach nearly a hundred%. Drip irrigation can probably offer
excessive software efficiency and achieve excessive application uniformity. Both are
vital in producing uniformly high crop yields and retaining water first-class while each
water and chemical compounds are implemented thru the irrigation device. Because the
stress version will increase, the uniformity and alertness efficiency of the system is
decreased which increases the water losses. Evaluation of hydraulics of drip irrigation
gadget helps in enhancing the design of irrigation device and higher manage of
irrigation water.

Methodology
Hydraulic evaluation of trickle system was done based on a method defined by
the ASAE (1999). The machine was examined for its uniformity coefficient, emission

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
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uniformity, and production coefficient of variant. Drippers having discharge potential
i.e. 1.6, 2.2, 3.0 and 4.0 lph respectively were tested at exceptional working stress i.e.
0.five, zero.7, 0.9, 1.25 and 1.5 kg/cm² and these pressures are maintained through the
usage of manipulate valve on the inlet of each lateral. The strain was adjusted by means
of the usage of the skip valve. The working strain head become measured by strain
gauge. Drippers on a lateral were decided on randomly and discharges had been
measured on them. For each dimension, a small place in the bed was excavated, and a
capture-can placed under the trickling emitter. Water was gathered from drippers to
confine the release into the plastic field directly. Water amassed in containers become
measured with the help of measuring cylinder. The irrigation gadget became then
pressurized and the quantity from every of the emitters turned into measured over a
period of one hour.

Materials
The drip irrigation system which includes head control unit (includes non-return
valve, air launch valve, disc filter, fertigation unit, stress gauge, and water meter), water
carrier device (consists of percent major pipe line, sub major pipe line, manage valves,
flush valves) and water distribution device (indispensable dripper line of 16 mm
diameter with emitter spacing of 40 cm) became laid out inside the experiment field.
The dripper lines of 10 m length had been laid at 1.2 m apart. Emitters with exclusive
discharge prices of 1.6 lph, 2.2 lph, 6.0 lph and 4.0 lph had been fixed to the lateral as
according to the treatments. The cease plugs (caps) have been constant to all principal,
sub major, and laterals to facilitate renovation of the device. Manipulate valves were
supplied at each treatment (with three lateral strains) which facilitates the operation of
the device in keeping with irrigation time. Non-return valve fixed regulated the float in
one route and prevented the reversal of water glide and fertilizer go with the flow lower
back to the bore properly. The field layout plan of test is offered in Figure 1.1

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
13

Figure 1.1: Layout plan of the experiment

Data

Table 1.1: Average discharge of emitters at different operating pressures

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From Table 1.1 it can be seen that the release from the distinctive drippers had
been elevated with increase in operating strain. Logarithmic relationships were evolved
between stress and discharge for each of the dripper. The relationship of strain and
discharge of every dripper have been shown in Table 1.1 The exponential shape of the
mathematical relationships turned into offered in Table 1.2 located for the stress-
discharge relationships. R2 value of every dripper discharge became above 0.95 and
may be stated that the version suits right. It can be visible from desk three that during
case of all of the dripper discharge quotes, the exponent of the strain become less than
0.5. This indicated that the character of flow from the dripper was no longer an orifice
waft. The exponent of strength function become reduced with potential of dripper
which indicated that the sensitivity of the dripper to stress for the discharge was
decreased with boom in dripper capacity.

Table 1.2: Relation between pressure and discharge of different emitters

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Table 1.3: Developed models for the pressure discharge relationship

1.8.2 Irrigation water use and vegetable production efficiency assessment
between sprinkler and drip irrigation systems at North Central Namibia,
by Simon Haidula, 2016

Introduction
One major contribution to food scarcity is irrigated agriculture, which produces
forty percent of food and seventy percent of agricultural goods in the agricultural land.
These irrigated places have doubled and have contributed growth in agricultural
productivity. An estimate was brought up that irrigated agriculture uses more than
seventy percent of the water coming from the rivers of the earth. Water is a precious
resource in agricultural food production because it remains as a limited resource, in
which the match of this valuable resource is greatly increasing due to the changes of
events such as rapid increment in world population, climate change, agricultural and
industrial activities. This affects a risk to maintainable production and global food
security, wherein unsustainable agricultural practices which need excessive water and
other production intake leads to incapable production and water scarcity.

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16
Drip irrigation has many definitions but in this study, drip irrigation is defined as
controlled irrigation techniques that decrease water demand, with lesser impacts on crop
yield and quality, guiding to improved food security, farm profit and secure sustainable
agricultural productivity. In dry areas, the use of sprinkler and drip irrigation can help
in improving crops quality and their yield as well. Other studies also supported that
these kind of irrigation systems can maximize the water use efficiency for high yield per
unit of water given to the crops. Also, the two irrigation systems can give profit to the
farmers by having high crop yield if joint with good farming practices like, good soil
management, good fertilization, pests management, mechanization operations and
improved seeds. Furthermore, these irrigation systems can lessen manmade
environmental effects that contain water wastage. Example of this is land reclamation
with sewage, water waste from the cities and factories, converting them into agricultural
crop productivity.

Efficiency is the capacity to produce the desired effect, expenses, and wastes.
While, agricultural water use efficiency is the ratio of crop yield per unit of water
applied. With the use of drip and sprinkler irrigation, water use efficiency and high
productivity were proven success. For example, success was obtained in fruits
production, in cotton, and an increase grain yield in vast semi – arid area of China and
vegetable crops production such as, tomato, hot pepper, and potato production.

Methodology
In measuring irrigation production efficiency of drip and sprinkler irrigation
systems on the three vegetables, manage the data, whereby production efficiency was
calculated as a response variable in using the formula of: total output over total input
costs used in the production times a hundred, of each vegetable. To compare the
production efficiency per between the two irrigation systems, each crop was studied

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
17
individually under two different irrigation systems such that data were disassociated
into two groups, farmers producing the crops using drip irrigation system and farmers
producing the crops with sprinkler irrigation system. A backward selection linear
model was used to measure the significance or effects of the predictor variables on the
response variable. Furthermore, there are many covariates predictor variables that can
correct bad distributions by backward selection.

Data
The objectives of the study was to compare the relationship or effects of
different factors: farmers age, production inputs costs (water, fertilizer, labor and
chemicals), types of fertilizer used (kraal manure or inorganic fertilizer), hectare size of
land planted, stakeholder inputs, and agricultural soil management practices, on
irrigation production efficiency on three vegetable crops (tomato, cabbage and pepper)
produced under two types of irrigation systems, drip and sprinkler irrigation system at
North Central Namibia. Many stated that irrigation production yield efficiency has
proven success on various crops including vegetables, produced with the use of drip and
sprinkler irrigation, whereby the production efficiency and high economic return in
vegetables is enhanced through the amount of water used, input costs, agricultural soil
management practices, farmers age, and others more, stated factors. Moreover, it was
revealed that efficiency is more like conjoined with drip relative to sprinkler irrigation,
other studies disagree with these findings, that there no statistical difference between
crop production efficiency between drip and sprinkler irrigation systems.

In this study, water measured by cost used in the crops production, has shown
positive effect on production efficiency of all the three vegetable crops grown with the
use of the two irrigation systems, high water cost means more water irrigated to crops,
the high irrigation efficiency. The production efficiency of tomatoes, cabbage, and

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
18
pepper under both irrigation systems, was increased with the use of water irrigated to
the plants. Several studies discovered similar findings but the production efficiency
differs depending on the irrigation type used, and climatic conditons such as soil and
climate. On the other hand, other studies stated that excess water can lead to poor
fertilization and nutrients leaching resulting in a decline in irrigation production
efficiency. Furthermore, other studies stated that production efficiency can be achieved
under drip irrigation since economic wise utilizes water to an extent of eighty seven
percent without causing yield loss.

The study concluded that production input costs; fertilizer and water are very
important determinant of irrigation production efficiency of all three vegetables on both
irrigation systems. Irrigation production efficiency of vegetables under drip irrigation is
high than vegetables under sprinkler irrigation, however drip farmers spend much in
buying inputs than sprinkler irrigation farmers. Statistical results on total output per ha
and irrigation system the relationship was not significant, neither the interaction
between water and irrigation system was found to be significant. Furthermore,
relationship between water cost and irrigation system was not significant, and this leads
to conclude that efficiency between the two irrigation systems was found equal. Apart
from mulching, other agro – ecological soil practices were not found significant in this
study. In conclusion, most findings of this study are not in line with the expected
findings.

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1.8.3 Design and Evaluation of a simple PVC Drip Irrigation System using
Akposoe Maize Variety as a Test Crop, by Evans Asenso, September 2011

Introduction
Irrigation is the synthetic application of water to the soil or plant, in the required
amount and at the time wanted, is a risk management tool for agricultural
manufacturing. The danger of yield reduction because of drought is minimized with
irrigation. Irrigation is extensively performed through surface, sub-surface and
pressurized systems, characterized by way of the mode of delivery of the water onto the
point of utility (Keller and Bliesner, 1990). When water is applied at the surface, a
substantial quantity is lost thru evaporation, run off and deep percolation making it
much less efficient.

Area application performance in most traditional irrigation methods remains
very low, generally much less than 50% (sprinkler irrigation) and often as low as 30%
(floor irrigation) (Molden et al. 1998). Excessive use of water typically entails losses
because of surface run-off from the field and deep percolation underneath the root zone
inside the field. Each run-off and deep percolation losses are difficult to manipulate
below furrow irrigation device, where a large quantity of water is implemented at an
unmarried instance. An alternative water application method consisting of the drip
irrigation approach allow for much greater uniform distribution in addition to greater
unique manipulate of the quantity of water applied and additionally decreases nutrient
leaching (Phene et al. 1994).

Drip irrigation is defined as “the gradual, frequent use of small volumes of
irrigation water to the base or root region of plants” (Smeal, 2007). Greater adoption of

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
20
this in current years started out within the late 1960s to early 1970s. Benefits of drip
irrigation system comprise: less water loss, discount in weed growth, less labour
requirements, minimal evaporation as compared to other watering methods, less usage
of fertilizer, decreased soil erosion, equitable water distribution and better crop
production. Negative aspects of this technology consist of: clogging of drip holes,
excessive preliminary price, algae growth and easy damage to drip pipes. Drip
irrigation is an effective technique for minimizing the water utilized in agricultural and
horticultural crop manufacturing. Frequency of water application is one of the
maximum vital factors in drip irrigation control due to its impact on soil water regime,
root distribution across the drip holes, the amount of water uptake by means of roots
and water percolating past the root region (Coelho and or 1999; Assouline, 2002; Wang
et al. 2006).

Methodology
Field preparation was completed by means of digging trenches of depth 60 cm at
spacing of 75 cm within the East to West course. PVC pipes at a drip hollow spacing of
35 cm had been laid manually in every trench at a nominal depth of 40 cm, 20 cm
and 0 cm.

The test was laid Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD) with 4
replications. The laterals were 6m long and 1.5 m extensive placement representing
three different laterals for each treatment, as indicated on Figure 1.2.

DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM FOR WATER CONSERVATION
21

Figure 1.2: Layout of experimental field

To calibrate the pipe for uniformity of flow from 16 drip holes of 2 mm
diameter each per lateral of 6 m, end cap fixed at one end, elbow fixed at the other and
jointed to a pipe of peak 0.6 m. This was connected to the main pipe through the
elbows to supply water from the storage tank to the main laterals thru the drip holes.
Collector cans had been used to collect water from the drip holes. The collector cans
had been located on a level surface which was checked with a levelling tool (spirit
level), to ensure even distribution of water within the drip holes.

A 25-liter container used as the storage tank and positioned at a peak of 0.8 m
to provide the flow head. A funnel was positioned on the 0.6 m pipe end to direct the
water into the lateral. The tap linked to the tank was opened completely to allow the
water glide through the lateral. The accumulated water over half-hour was measured
using a measuring cylinder to test uniformity of water drift from each drip hole.

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Materials
Thirty-six (36) PVC pipes of length 6m and diameter 22.5 mm have been used.
Drip holes of diameter 2 mm had been made at a spacing of 0.35 m on each PVC pipe
based on maize planting distance. The drip holes were drilled with a hand drill with a
drill system with a drill size of 2 mm. End caps had been used to cover one end of the
pipe line to stop flowing out. Elbows have been used to attach the extension pipes to
the main lateral. The geotextile material (of 0.06 m × 0.39 m size) and a copper wire
(of length 0.25 m) were used to restrict the flow of water from the drip holes of the
laterals, which served as a soaking medium and manage drip flow. The PVC pipes have
been laid at three specific depths; 0 cm, 20 cm and 40 cm. The maize range (Akposoe)
become planted as a take a look at crop at a planting spacing of 0.75 m among rows and
0.35 m within rows with a furrow of 1m among remedies.

Tapes and tubes are available for use as laterals. Tape merchandise are thinner
than tubes (Neufeld et al., 1993). Usually, tube wall thickness degrees from 0.04 mm to
1.5 mm (Hanson et al., 2000). Camp et al. (2000) recognized instructions of tape wall
thickness. Bendy thin-walled (0.15 mm to 0.30 mm) tapes are commonly used for
shallow set up, even as thicker-walled (0.38 mm to 0.50 mm) tapes are set up deeper or
wherein the soil does not offer sufficient support to prevent collapse with the aid of
equipment or soil weight.

Emitters are plastic devices which exactly supply small quantities of water. Hla
and Scherer (2003) defined two varieties of emitter. Point-source emitters discharge
water from man or woman or a couple of shops. Line-supply emitters have perforations,
holes, porous partitions, or emitters extruded into the plastic lateral traces (Ayars et al.,
2007). Line- source emitters are commonly used for extensively spaced plants which
include vines, ornamentals, shrubs and trees. The emitters used for SDI are a whole lot

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23
similar to the ones used for surface drip, but the emitter is constant internally inside the
drip line (Harris, 2005c).

Soil characteristics and plant spacing determine emitter spacing. Further, an
emitter spacing of 0.3 m was appropriate for corn manufacturing for deep silt loam soils
underneath subsurface drip (Lamm and Aiken, 2005). In a semi-arid environment, 0.45
m emitter spacing was utilized in clay loam soils for drip-irrigated corn (Howell et al.,
1995). In preferred, emitter spacing ought to normally be much less than the drip lateral
spacing and closely related to crop spacing (Lamm and Camp, 2007)

Data

Table 1.4: Performance criteria determination of flow through the pipe

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24
Maize growth under drip irrigation gave better outcomes in terms of growth
parameters as compared to rain-fed (“No irrigation”). In general, plant height, stem
girth, leaf width, quantity of leaves and leaf length under drip irrigation become
statistically similar, but significantly better as compared to “No Irrigation” treatment.

1.8.4 Water Management and Appropriate Irrigation System for
Greenhouse Tomato Production in Soilless Media, by Alagha, S.A. and
Sangodoyin, A.Y, September 2013

Introduction
Drip irrigation is an irrigation technique which minimizes the use of water and
fertilizer through permitting water to drip slowly to the roots of plants, both onto the
soil floor or without delay onto the root zone, through a network of valves, pipes,
tubing, and emitters. Drip irrigation is usually appropriate in regions wherein water
supplies are confined, or recycled water is used for irrigation. Careful observation of all
the relevant elements like land topography, soil, water, crop and agro-climatic situations
are had to determine the most appropriate drip irrigation device and additives to be used
in a selected installation. Fertilizer savings of up to 95% are being stated from latest
subject tests the use of drip fertigation and gradual water delivery as compared to timed-
launch and irrigation by way of micro spray heads. If properly designed, installed, and
managed, drip irrigation may help acquire water conservation by means of lowering
evaporation and deep drainage while compared to different sorts of irrigation which
include flood or overhead sprinklers considering the fact that water may be more
precisely carried out to the plant roots. In addition, drip can remove many sicknesses
which can be unfold through water contact with the foliage.

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Methodology
Two irrigation systems particularly sprinkler (s) and drip (d) had been produced,
calibrated and applied to fertigate tomato planted in six soilless media specifically:
Washed sand (T1), sterilized sawdust (T2), grinded coconut fiber (T3), sand/sawdust
(1:1) (T4), sawdust/coconut fiber (1:1) (T5) and coconut fiber/sand (1:1) (T6). Every
soilless medium was replicated three instances under every irrigation system inside a
greenhouse. The experiment become a 2 x 6 factorial mix with three replicates, using a
Randomized complete Block design. Water was stored in huge transparent rubber tank
of a 1000 l potential at a completely high elevation of 4.5 m to provide the excessive
pressure required by each system to deliver the water (Plate 1). Liquid fertilizer (Boost
Extra – N: P: K: 20:20:20) was carried out thru the irrigation water (fertigation) at the
amount of 60 ml to 15l as suggested by the manufacturer. The nutrient content inside
the fertigated water was monitored by measuring the pH and EC values of the water
before application. The pH and the EC of the water numerous among 7.3 to 7.7 and
0.27 dS/m to 0.3 dS/m respectively. Water Use Efficiencies (WUE) of tomato below
the two irrigation systems was calculated at the same time as yield and percentage of
marketable fruits of tomato had been determined at maturation. Marketability of tomato
became determined through physical observation of tomato fruit for mechanical harm,
insect attack or rot (as a result of water application directly on tomato fruits at
maturation under sprinkler irrigation). The test was repeated for 2 developing cycles.
Data have been analyzed the usage of ANOVA at p = 0.05. Price advantage analyses of
drip as opposed to micro sprinkler irrigation system was evaluated. Eighteen rubber
cans were placed at an equidistance of 35 cm alongside each of the 3 parallel perforated
pipe laterals containing six nozzles each. The laterals were spaced at 35cm to each
other, all corresponding to within and among row spacing’s respectively. The entire
plan was on a typical stage with the drip irrigation unit. The volume of water gotten by
each can following three minutes was recorded from which sprinkler discharge, Q was

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determined. Application rate for every discharge was computed using the relationship
given by Robert and James (2001).

Materials
Overhead tank to supply water and fertilizer and to give the required operating
pressure. Main supply pipeline comprising of 25 mm diameter and 9.8 m long PVC
pipe. One-gauge valve mounted at 1.5 m peak on the main supply pipeline beneath the
overhead tank. Three 20 mm diameter risers every of a 100 cm height. Three gauge
valves (set up at middle of every riser) for controlling the discharge rate of the
sprinklers in each lateral. Three 1.25 cm diameter perforated pipe sprinkler that sprayed
water in a non-overlap sample at fairly uniform price which serve as the laterals.
Eighteen graduated plastic cans of the same volume for uniformity coefficient
determination. Materials used include the following: 9? block Scaffold (4.5m high),
Storage tank (1000 l), Perforated pipe sprinklers, Measuring cylinder, Stopwatch,
Rubber cans (location, a = 2.83 x 10-3m 2) r = 0.03 m.

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Data

Table 1.5: Yield and quality of tomato planted in various soilless media

Table 1.6: Procedure for estimating Benefit from tomato per year while using Sprinkler and Drip

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1.8.5 Design Proposal of Drip Irrigation System for an Efficient
Management of Irrigation Water for MAIZE Improved Seeds Production
in a Part of Seeds Farm of Loumbila, by Bamouni Souleymane, June 2011

Introduction
With the droughts of 1970s, methods had been evolved concerning the control
of irrigation water with a view to enhance agricultural productivity. Certainly,
numerous types of irrigation schemes had been then created, such as the big schemes
and the construction of many small dams and related perimeters, however the effects
thus far were mixed with inadequate infrastructure valued and whose management is
basically in deficit. Mastering from these shortcomings and boundaries of these
specific sorts of irrigation schemes in a context of poverty and about the patience of
climate conditions and low productiveness of rainfed agriculture, the authorities
determined to check its alternatives and tips and described a countrywide approach for
sustainable irrigated agriculture.

Methodology
The methodology used for the observe comprises four levels. The subject of the
thesis is “Design proposal of Drip Irrigation system for an efficient management of
irrigation water for maize improved seeds production in a part of seeds farm of
Loumbila”. The web page is a part of the seed farm of Loumbila which is no extra
practical. This part of the irrigation gadget of twelve ha which is completely degraded
become chosen as the examine site. Portion of the study site in blocks and plot which
helped to design the machine to a plot after which confirm its capability on a ha on each
block. Literature evaluate changed into to search and examine a number of papers and
books managing irrigation troubles in trendy, but additionally drip irrigation purposes
specifically. This literature along with net research allowed us to have facts and

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29
understand the topic, challenge of our examine in all edges. The literature overview and
software program clearly helped us to acquire statistics and standard facts about
irrigation. It has additionally helped to give a top level view of irrigation in Burkina
Faso.

Materials
The type of drip line chosen for the design is Streamline 80 d.16 q.1,49 s. 0,4
(2000). The spacing between crop lines is 0.8 m. Therefore, we need a total length of
three thousand one hundred twenty-five meters of drip line on a surface of 0.25 ha. The
length of the head pipe at the plot is fifty m and the type is PE DB PFA 4 DN 75. These
characteristics are summarized in the following table:

Table 1.7: Characteristics of materials and equipment used

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Table 1.8: Characteristics of the pipe

Data
Table 1.9: Different volume of water

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CHAPTER TWO
CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Figure 2.1: Conceptual Framework

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CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY

3.1 Research Design

The researchers used an Action Research Design for the study because the
researchers created a small-scale version of a drip irrigation system for the community.
It is to make an action for the farmers to minimize their workloads and to lessen the
time they spend in a day. It also develops a better innovation for them to be more
productive with the use of this study. With the help of experimental research method,
the researchers conducted data gathering, observations, tests and trials to prove the
hypothesis of the study. These methods helped the researchers know on how the design
can improve for better usage. The drip irrigation system done is to understand the
impact to the plants and to know whether the study is effective and more cost efficient.
It is to help the people improve the agricultural needs of the community.

3.2 Sources of Data

Philippines is known for its wealthy supply of resources, ranging from natural
and artificial; particularly human-made products. Way back the earlier years up to the
present time, they were already known for their products that were exported throughout
the world that made them popular because of their high-quality goods and products. An
area where the Philippines made its biggest mark is in Agriculture. Before the
Spaniards colonized and influenced them with their own traditions and beliefs, they
were already striving in farming and made it their primary source of income. Because

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33
of their knowledge in agriculture, they were even invited overseas for them to teach and
educate other cultures on how to succeed in farming. Up to the present day, farming is
still a vital part on the economy of the country.

Due to the uncertainties of the world, natural resources are being limited and
forced to reduce their consumption mostly on water, which as a matter of fact is an
important part of life and in agriculture. As a proposed solution and innovation for the
future, drip irrigation shall be introduced and utilized. It is a modern way and approach
to farming. In this method it is not only limited to one plant but also is as flexible and
can be used to different crops as much as possible. Its water usage will be based on
what crops will be planted because different plants need different amount of water in a
day. The rate of flow of each emitter will be adjustable depending on the needs and
type of plants and crops. The researchers have noticed that most of the cultivator used a
lot of water that the crop needs, they were immersing the crops with water taking more
of what they need. They also tend to distribute water in ununiformed manner also
makes one portion receive larger water compared to the other. In reality different crops
and plants have different amount of water needed. A specific produce needs a certain
amount of water compared to a different type of produce. It is also an important aspect
to consider especially in conserving the water resources.

3.3 Participants

Drip Irrigation will be most beneficial to the farmers due to its time saving
feature. It also decreases weed and disease pressure because it keeps water off the plant
canopy, thus reducing foliar disease development on many plants. Both of these
benefits can lead to reduced pesticide use resulting to chemical and labor savings. It is
adaptable; Drip systems are suitable for uneven topography and oddly shaped fields.

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34
For some fields, this serves as an advantage over surface irrigation because of high land
leveling costs and issues caused by disturbing soil profiles. It also has some advantages
over sprinkler irrigation on small and odd shaped fields because the poorest uniformity
with sprinkler irrigation occurs at field edges caused by lack of proper application
overlap from sprinklers. Taking these considerations, it is applicable to small scale
farmers or in even a home based-garden. Edzan Farm will definitely gain in the system
considering having an existing water pump lessens the total cost of the system. It is an
important factor since the total area of the farm that will be supplied with water and the
production of crops in the farm is continuous all year.

3.4 Proposed Design

Figure 3.1: Proposed Design

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3.5 Materials

3.5.1 Irrigation Tank

55 Gallons Water Barrel
A tank was built throughout a slope with the intention to gather and store water
by way of taking advantage of nearby mounds and depressions. Water tanks are used to
provide storage of water to be used in lots of applications, drinking water, irrigation
agriculture, fire suppression, agricultural farming, both for vegetation and farm animals,
chemical production, food preparation as well as many other uses. Water tank
parameters consist of the overall layout of the tank, and choice of construction
materials, linings. Earthen pots additionally feature as water storages. Water tanks are
an efficient manner to help growing nations to save clean water.

3.5.2 Emitters
Drip emitters launch water to the plants from the mainline tubing. The emitters
can be punched immediately into the mainline or can be inserted into the end of a length
of 1/4″ tubing for vegetation that are not near the mainline. This is the most practical
manner to emit water to the vegetation when they are no longer evenly spaced. Pressure
compensating drip emitters supply a particular amount of water every time, despite the
fact that there are adjustments in pressure.

Emitters are available in a selection of various flow rates. The maximum
common flow rates are: 2.0 liters/hour – 1/2 gallon in keeping with hour, 4.0 liters/hour
– 1 gallon per hour and 8.0 liters/hour – 2 gallons per hour. Emitters are categorized
into groups primarily based on how their layout type and the method they use to modify

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36
pressure. However, a hole alone does no longer work properly. Unless the hole is
extremely small, the water has a tendency to forcefully shoot out of it like a tiny fire
nozzle and way too much water will pop out. More importantly, there is a little
uniformity of flow when using a simple hole. When there is a long pipe with holes
drilled in it, the holes at the end nearest the water supply will have a massive water flow
from each other, even as those at the far end could have a very small flow. Considering
the usage of a simple hole in a pipe does no longer work very well, the early pioneers of
drip irrigation began playing around with mechanical devices that might higher alter the
flow.

These devices were given the name “emitters” or occasionally “drippers”. The
emitters are mounted on the pipe and act as small throttles, assuring that a uniform rate
of flow is emitted. Some are constructed into the pipe or tubing, others attach to it using
a barb or threads. The emitter reduces and regulates the amount of water discharged.

3.5.3 Tubing
1/2 in. PVC Pipe (main pipe)
5/8 in. flexible hose (lateral line)
Polyethylene tubing is the spine of any drip irrigation system. The poly tubing
transports the water out of the source in the plants. The water is then released by using
emitters, drip lines, sprayers, or sprinklers. Emitters can be manually inserted
immediately into poly mainline tubing with the help of a punch.

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3.5.4 Fittings
1/2 inch
Use these drip fittings to connect pieces of tubing together. It is used in pipe
systems to connect straight pipe or tubing sections, adapt to different sizes or shapes
and for other purposes, such as regulating (or measuring) fluid flow.

3.5.5 Valves
Valves are designed to be used with a timer to control an irrigation system. The
timer sends a sign to the valve when to open or close. Select a valve that is well suited
with the timer and the pressure and flow rate of the irrigation system. All in-line valves
are designed for below ground set up and feature pipe threads on each inlet and outlet.

3.5.6 Backflow Prevention
A backflow prevention tool is needed when injecting fertilizers, chemical
substances, or any components into an irrigation system. The backflow prevention tool
prevents water infected with components from flowing back into the drinking or potable
water supply. Many areas require a backflow tool to be mounted on every system
regardless of using fertilizers or chemicals. A backflow preventer is like a one-way
gate for water. Backflow preventers may be as easy as a single test valve that closes
while water flow reverses. A greater complex backflow preventer can be a complicated
device that includes more than one check valves, water launch valves, air vents and/or
systems that permit it to be examined to guarantee it is operating properly.

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3.5.7 Filters
Filters eliminate sediment and particles that can clog an irrigation system. There
are sort of filters to fulfill the particular desires of the system. Select a filter based
totally on the high-quality of the water supply and the size of the system. It is
encouraged to put in a filter on each irrigation system and will no longer guarantee a
system without the best filter mounted. For drip systems, they are a need to prevent
emitters from becoming plugged. Although small sand particles can pass through the
system without clogging it, they cause wear on the system. Automated valves comprise
very small water passageways in them which can end up plugged resulting inside the
valve failing to either open or close. A small grain of sand stuck in a spray nozzle can
bring about a dry, useless spot in a lawn.

3.6 Procedure

From the container where the water will be stored gate valve, filter, backflow
preventer will be set, the pipes will be connected in a parallel manner or type in a way,
for which water will flow freely and to supply each connecting pipe. The main pipe and
lateral pipes will be laid with caution to ensure that there will be a uniform flow and
distribution of water from each drip hole. The slope of the pipes will be designed as
adjustable and flexible in related to the design of the system. It will be intended in that
way because of the different characteristics and elevation of the land. It also serves as
an advantage especially considering the crops have different heights. PVC pipes or
hose will be utilized. Drip holes of diameter 2-8 mm diameter will be placed and the
spacing of each hole will be dependent on the spaces between planting distance. There
will also be emitters placed inside the drip holes to monitor and control the discharge
water. The drip holes were drilled with a hand drill with a drill size of 28 mm. Lateral
pipes will be connected to have a continuous flow. Fittings were used to connect the

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extension pipes to the main lateral. Control valves were provided at each treatment
which facilitates the operation of the system according to irrigation time. The layout
and placement of pipes is subjected to changes for the full benefit of the crops and to
attain the projected results.

3.7 Data Analysis Plan

Among the objectives of the study was focused mainly on crop cultivation and
water conservation. Once the drip irrigation is installed, there will be a time allotted to
harvest the crops in able to conduct judgments and compare the end results and
difference in production of the plants between the Traditional Irrigation and Drip
Irrigation. The factors to be considered will be based from its appearance, size, color
and shape. This will also indicate if there will be changes on the growing days of a
crop. The constant monitoring of water consumption every day will also be
implemented and be recorded so that the target consumable water will not exceed
within the limit. For further information, a survey will be conducted among the farmers
of Edzan Farm to determine their preference regarding the installed Drip Irrigation and
its whole effect in their daily life.

3.8 Study Area Description

The study will be conducted in Barangay Paralaya-Manibaug, Porac Pampanga,
in a placed called as Edzan Farm where most of the people who lived and owns land
decided to venture in farming and agriculture. It has been highly affected by the
eruption of the Mount Pinatubo last 1991, it was considered as a stable agricultural
town in the early 19th century that proves the sustainability of crops of the land.

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3.9 Site Data Collection

During the site visit, there is a certain part of it called as Edzan Farm, where
most of the people in that community engage themselves in farming. The researchers
conducted a simple interview concerning on how they allocate their given resources to
their full use. There was already an existing water pump that supplies water for the
crops and has a flow rate of 0.4254 cu. m. per hr. They have built connecting wells that
are seven to ten meters apart which were constructed nearby the crops so that it will be
easier for the farmers to water the plants. The researchers measured part of the land,
which is approximately eighty square meters. Considering a massive area, it would take
roughly four thousand liters of water per week for that specific land and also
considering the weight of the tanks that the farmer would carry all throughout the day.
To activate the water pump, it consumes an approximately two liters of gas for it to be
set in motion. That two liters of gas would be enough to supply the water for a day.
The farmers would water the crops three times, in the morning, afternoon and before
dawn. The water that would be collected in the morning would be placed in the well for
future uses. There is no approximate number of liters of water that the water pumps
supply a day.

3.10 Limitations

Drip irrigation will be installed with the use of low cost materials that will be
beneficial for the famers of Edzan Farm, watering crops especially for a large area of
land is time consuming and demands a lot of patience and sometimes one man is not
enough to work on the field and needs to have and assistant which makes the farmers
hire workers that would result to reduce their income per month. With the help of this
irrigation system it lessens the workloads of the producers in terms of it supplying

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water. As we all know it is already projected in the future that there will be a scarcity of
clean and consumable water, it is a must as early as now to educate and propose other
methods on how to reduce the usage of water and how to use water system properly.

Drip irrigation thrives in this aspect because it maximizes the water collected
and also water is delivered directly to the ground’s surface rather than being sprayed up
and out over an area. This direct application of water yields water savings.

3.11 Maintenance

Drip irrigation systems are necessary part of any modern greenhouse facility.
The simplest drip irrigation system includes filter, tubing and emitters (drippers). It
provides a controlled and uniform distribution of water and nutrients among vegetation
placed along the irrigation line. But, emitters are liable to clogging from deposits of
calcium carbonate, algae or micro organism, so irrigation lines require maintenance for
higher and longer service. The drip system filter must be checked each day and wiped
clean if necessary, a good way to utilize disc and screen filters which are available in
the marketplace. despite the fact that, it is relatively advised to use disc filters
considering that they are greater proof against clogging and less complicated to clean
through back flushing. Check lines for leaks which can arise on the pipes.

Prevention is the best way to ensure that the system is working properly. Ensure
the use of appropriate filter for your irrigation water source and regularly clean it as
needed. Drip lines and manifolds should be flushed periodically to remove settled
debris by opening the ends of the emitters. The irrigation water to be used in the drip
system should be evaluated carefully to assess any potential clogging problems.

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Materials suspended in the water, such as sand, silt, and algae, can block emitter flow
passages or settle out in the drip lines wherever water velocity is low. Injecting a
cleaning compound like chlorine gas or sodium hypochlorite can also clean the line.
Periodic injections of sulfuric or phosphoric acid is used to prevent scaling from hard
water. It should be thoroughly taken into utmost care in able to apply the right amount
and the use the correct injector type. As long as the chlorine is supplied correctly with
the amount needed, there will be no damage to the crop. Moreover, routinely check
drip lines for leakage and repair leaks promptly. Use all chemicals as directed.
Carefully follow all safety precautions when using chemical injects, like chlorine gas, to
prevent human harm is harmful avoid the improper mixture with other substances.

3.12 Durability

Like most everything else, irrigation system components wear out and
eventually fail. Valve diaphragms wear out, filters will be unusable and will have to be
replaced. Poly laterals get pinched through roots, and so does drip tubing.
Occasionally just ought to replace and or repair some components because of age and
some wear out due to incorrect utilization of every material. These are the variables
that cannot determine how long a certain system will last. However with the proper
high-quality of the system, continued guidance and right care for the materials the entire
system could last for at the least of three to five years.

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3.13 Advantages over the other Irrigation System

Table 3.1: Advantages over the other Irrigation System
Types of Irrigation Systems
Surface irrigation Water is sent over and throughout land by means of
gravity, no mechanical pump involved.
Localized irrigation Water is distributed below low pressure, through a piped
network and carried out to every plant.

Drip irrigation
A kind of localized irrigation wherein drops of water are
brought at or near the root of vegetation. in this kind of
irrigation, evaporation and runoff are minimized.

Sprinkler irrigation
Water is sent through overhead high-pressure sprinklers
or weapons from a primary location in the field or from
sprinklers on moving systems.

Center pivot irrigation
Water is distributed with the aid of a system of sprinklers
that circulate on wheeled towers in a circular pattern.
This system is common in flat regions of the United
States.

Lateral move irrigation
Water is shipped through a series of pipes, each with a
wheel and a set of sprinklers, that are turned around
either by means of hand or with a purpose-built
mechanism. The sprinklers circulate a certain distance
throughout the field after which need to have the water
hose reconnected for the next distance. This system tends
to be much less costly but calls for more labor than
others.

Sub-irrigation
Water is distributed across land through elevating the
water table, through a system of pumping stations,
canals, gates, and ditches. This kind of irrigation is best
in regions with high water tables.
Manual irrigation Water is sent throughout land through manual hard work
and watering cans. This system is very labor intensive.

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Irrigation systems are categorized in three basic categories or methods: surface,
sprinkle and micro irrigation. The level of irrigation application efficiency is very
important in comparing different irrigation system. The system performance is a degree
of a system’s effectiveness in making use of water to the crop and making it available
inside the crop’s root zone. During the application of the system, it also describes the
losses which occured. Low application efficiencies result in increased water uses and
potential increases in labor and energy expense.

The water use efficiency under conventional manual method of irrigation, which
is very low due to distribution losses. Recognizing the fast decline of irrigation water
potential and increasing demand for water from different sectors, several demand
management strategies and program have been introduced to save water and increase
the existing water use efficiency. One such method introduced relatively recently is
micro-irrigation, which includes both drip and sprinkler method of irrigation. Micro-
irrigation is proved to be an efficient method in saving water and increasing water use
efficiency as compared to the conventional surface method of irrigation, where water
use efficiency is only about 35-40 percent.

Drip, or trickle irrigation, is the system where in water is often and slowly
applied directly on the crop root zone. The concept of this irrigation system is instead
of watering the entire field, only the root zone or surface of the root zone, thus making
water content of the crop root zone at the optimum level. Comparing the drip irrigation
to other types of irrigation, it is one of the most effective type of irrigation. The slow
rate of water application at isolated locations with low pressure and the irrigation of
only a portion of the soil volume in the field can result in relatively low-cost water
delivery systems, as well as reductions in water diversions compared to other irrigation
methods.

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For the plant to grow properly, the main goal of the drip irrigation system is to
apply the water to the plants when it is most needed. Moreover, it provides a very
favorable moisture level in the soil in which plants can flourish. Both lost and applied
water and meeting the water the crops need, ranges from 80 to 90% efficiency.

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CHAPTER FOUR
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

4.1 Flow Rates

For the first week the irrigation system would run for one and a half (1.5) hours
that will be divided to three, each hour at different time of the day. For the area and
design given it would take up about 191 emitters. The flow rate in each emitter should
at least be 2 liters/hr. Then the flow rate from the tank itself should be 190.48 liters/hr.
For the second and third week, the irrigation system would also run for one and a half
(1.5) hours, each hour at different time of the day and would also take up 191 emitters.
The flow rate in each emitter should be 8 liters/hr. and in the tank would be 761.90
liters/hr.

Table 4.1: First Drop of Water (20ml)
Emitters 1st Trial 2nd Trial 3rd Trial
1 46.35 sec 28.86 sec 52.86 sec
2 49.68 sec 23.93 sec 59.27 sec
3 46.06 sec 26.21 sec 56.98 sec
4 41.18 sec 24.68 sec 56.15 sec

Table 4.2: Continuous Flow of Water (20ml)
Emitters 1st Trial 2nd Trial 3rd Trial
1 30.10 sec 43.86 sec 60.15 sec
2 39.98 sec 46.99 sec 67.20 sec
3 31.93 sec 42.72 sec 62.39 sec
4 34.80 sec 48.78 sec 65.66 sec

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4.2 Water Conservation

For a total area of eighty square meter it will be utilized that consists of four
plots, it would need two thousand three hundred sixty eight liters of water for the whole
day according to the farmers. Imagine how much water they would conserve by using
and applying drip irrigation facility. For a pechay plant to grow healthy, it would need
two to three weeks before harvesting.

Amount of water needed per week (According to Chapter 5 of Soil, Crops and Fertilizer
Use)
Crop watering suggestions are often given in terms of inches or millimeters
(mm) of water according to week. One inch (or one mm) of water is same to filling a
flat-bottom tub with 1 inch (or 1 mm) of water. Be aware that these measurements refer
only to the real thickness of the water layer and say nothing in regards to the size of the
tub (or area), nor how deep the water will penetrate in a soil. Regarding of the actual
water volume required per area, here are some very useful conversions:
1 inch of water = 7 gallons (25 liters) in step with rectangular meter 1 millimeter of
water = 1 liter according to square meter

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Table 4.3: Total Weekly Water Needs (1)
(Includes both plant usage and evaporation from the soil)

Considering it falls under classification “VERY YOUNG PLANTS IN WARM
WEATHER” for the first week, that needs 19-25 liters/sq.m. for a week. And
considering on the second and third week it falls under the classification of “PEAK
USE RATES FOR VEGETABLES IN WARM WEATHER (during flowering, fruiting,
or heading)” it would need 35-50 liters/sq.m. for a week.

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Table 4.4: Computation Breakdown

For the whole cycle of the pechay from planting to harvesting, there would be a
difference of 29,728 liters of water that would be conserve in a span of three weeks. If
the irrigation system will push through it would save 39,638 liters of water a month or
475,648 liters of water a year.

4.3 Cost and Benefit Analysis

For the installation of the drip irrigation system a water barrel will be used that
costs around P1,000. For the control of the water discharging in the tank ball valve will
be used and costs around P140. Filter for the prevention of hard particles coming from
the underground water from blocking the holes in the drippers will be used and be
attached in the ball valve and costs P350. 1/2″ PVC pipe will be utilized for the main
pipe of the system that costs P53/3m. 5/8″ of flexible hose will be utilized for the 4 pcs
of 16m lateral lines and costs around P44/m. Fittings such as tees costs P8/pc and
elbows P6/pc. Drippers around P1,300 for a 200 pcs of emitters. Backflow preventer
will be used to avoid water coming back out of the tank that costs P280. The overall

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cost for the drip irrigation for 80 sq. m. area will range around P6,500. The owner of
the land may hire a worker and pay them Php 15.00 per plots, if there will be 4 plots on
their land it would cost Php 60.00 a day, Php 1,800.00 a month and Php 12,600.00 a
year. It would save a lot of money comparing the labor for a year and it would also help
that the system will also be low maintenance that means it will lessen the cost for the
year. The 80 sq. m. area would be able to produce Php 2,400.00 after marketing their
products. It would be consist of either pechay or mustard green, which are being sold
per kilo. The whole block can produce nearly 12-15 kilos per month which will lead in
earning Php 2,400.00. On the other hand, if spinach will be harvested, it will be sold for
about Php 1,400. It would take approximately 2-3 months for the investment of the
farmers to recover.

Table 4.5: Cost and Benefit Analysis
Materials Quantity Price
Irrigation Tank 1 – 55 Gallons Php 1000
Valves 1 Php 140
Emitters 200 – 2L/hr Php 1300
Tubing 1 – 1/2″ PVC pipe
66m – 5/8″ flexible hose
Php 53/6m
Php 44/m
Fittings 5 – 1/2″ tees
4 – 1/2″ elbows
Php 8/pc
Php 6/pc
Filters 1 Php 350
Backflow Prevention 1 Php 280
ESTIMATED PRICE Php 6500

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CHAPTER FIVE
CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

5.1 Conclusion

The research proves that with the right theoretical concepts, the system would
function as to how it was designed. It reduced the amount of water consumed by a
specificied area compared to normal irrigation systems. In addition, it has low cost
materials which are durable and at the same time detachable features that makes easier
to maintain. Furthermore, it made the farmers more productive because of their extra
time that they can allot to other agricultural activities. In line, the farmers also
increased their profit since extra laborers are not needed.

5.2 Recommendations

The researchers recommend to future users of this drip irrigation system to
provide an additional water source. They also have to check the environmental impacts
that can affect by the system. They may purchase materials that are guaranteed to have
the same function as designed in this study.

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