DNA reducing the loss that caused that caused

DNA or scientificallyknown as the deoxyribonucleic acid is a hereditary substances that contain biologicalmaterial that helps in building and maintaining all the structures in anorganism. The chemical structure of DNA basically the same for all theorganisms but the differences exist in the arrangement of the DNA buildingblock which is the base pairs.  Everyorganisms have their own unique sequences of base pair that determine theirspecies, populations or even their individuals. The base pair is particularlyrepeating its patterns over and over again. As for eDNA or also knownas the environmental DNA is define as the mitochondrial DNA that is beenrelease by an organism to its surrounding environment.

The sources of the eDNAcomes from the organism mucous, feces, gametes, shed skin, hair or even theirsweat. The ways to detect the eDNA in the environment are in the form ofcellular or extracellular form.eDNA helps in thedetection of specific species using its established technologies. This eDNA studyoffer opportunity in monitoring endangered species in the world as well as forthe biodiversity assestments surround us.  The objective of thisstudy are to; 1)      Protectendangerd species around the world2)      Monitorthe biodiversity in soil, air and water3)      Appliedbiosecurity among the endangerd speciesDNA is the main geneticmaterials of all cellular.

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The development of biotechnology and molecular biologymake it possible for us to regulate the plant traits, by using the DNA informationwithin the organisms and it helps in classified these organisms based on their morphologicaland physiological traits. The scientist recently have introduced a way whichcan help farmers to improve their agriculture yiels and quality base on the DNAmolecular markers which have been widely used in agricultural production. Otherthan that, the DNA molecular merkers also helps in reducing the loss thatcaused that caused by many foreign molecule. Moreover, the methods that beenintroduced by the scientist have been used and the results are highlyrecommended to use by all the farmers which it can improve the breedingefficiency of the plant and also strengthening the regulation of plant growth.These modern DNA technologies are important as it help measures to guaranteethe sustainable development of agricultural plants. Despite the agricultureinclude the plant and animal production, DNA technologies in these fields usethe same technical objective and type.

Therefore, in this eDNA study inagriculture science, we will review the agricultural applications of DNAtechnologies by introducing the use of DNA technologies in plant production. Many reports have beenwrote about the various application of DNA technologies that was used inagricultural production and the DNA technologies have been constantly maintainedand updated. It will be very difficult for thee scientist to introduce everyDNA technique since it will be renew and updated every time based on theagricultural statistics. Therefore, this study will introduce the agriculturalapplications of DNA molecular marker and also the transgenic technology in thisstudy that scientist have used in order to improve the agriculture aspects. VariousDNA markers were developed and was used in agriculture research, such as DNArandom amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP),amplified fragment length polymorphism, (AFLP) and sequence-related amplifiedpolymorphism (SRAP). The technologies can be compared with the traditionalmorphological markers, cytological markers, and biochemistry markers that wasused by people around 1000 years behind us and it can be proved that DNAmarkers which have been recently introduced have much more information can helpsin working without the influence of plant organs or the developmental stages. Manytypes of environmental factors that have been widely used before inidentification of crop varieties, conservation of plant germplasm resource,analysis of genetic adversity and evolution, construction of genetic maps,cloning of important trait genes, and molecular mark assisted breeding can nolonger be used since the existence of this technology because this technologymake things easier for the scientist.   In order to better applythe DNA markers for identification of cultivar, the DNA fingerprint will beconvert to the available and convenient information.

Since the practical isvery crucial, it can be directly used in the identification of cultivar but theavailable technique which is available is lack and it will make it verydifficult in conversion of the DNA marker fingerprint to easy accessinformation, that can lead to the research findings on cultivar identification.Before this, this kind of techniques were barely used in the agricultureproduction around the world. The DNA marker identification in the former studygives in results which mainly analyzed by electrophoresis band database, binarytable and cluster analysis, but all of those type of information were tooabstract. Besides, it was hard and difficult to used it in the ordinarycultivar identification practice in daily agriculture production. With thiskind of development and application of the manual cultivar identificationdiagram (MCID) that have been introduced recently, the identification ofcultivar by DNA marker has obtained the exact objective to serve for theagriculture directly. In MCID, the information of DNA marker primer and thepolymorphic bands were marked to the identification of cultivar diagram (CID)through artificial drawing, by which the identification of cultivar results wasused or be the reference in the identification of cultivar practice.

RAPDmolecular marker was used to the  identify the cultivar of many fruits such as grapevine,pomegranate, loose-skin mandarin and lemon. The CID have provide many useful andindependent information of primer and polymorphic bands. It soon can be used inidentification of the the cultivar of grape and pomegranate. The DNA marker andthe MCID have combine to make it possible to exert the advantages of DNA markersuffiecienly in identification of cultivar. It is undeniable factsthat plants are more difficult to work with than bacteria, so the scientist haveinsert the gene that can be made into single plant cells.

Then the cells can becultivated to form a mature plant. This type of major method was used throughthe plasmids of the bacterium called Agrobacterium tumefaciens. This bacterium helpsto invades plant cells and its plasmids also helps for tumor induction.

Thetumor-inducing genes was removed out and a plasmid that unites with the plantcell was obtained without causing any harm. The tomato which canresist rotting was the first product formed by using the biotechnology. A genewas added which will produce an ansense molecule and the scientist used thismethod to altered this plant. The antisense molecule inhibits the tomato fromproducing the enzyme that encourages rotting.

The tomato can ripen longer onthe vine without this type of enzyme and can be used for many times. There are many part ofDNA study in agriculture. One of the part is application of recombinant DNAtechnology in agriculture. These part are divided to three field.

There aretransgenic plants with resistance to herbicide. In this field,gene forherbicide resistance is inserted into a crop plant’s chromosomal DNA.Herbicides will have no effect on the crop plants and will only destroy theweeds.For example,transgenic soybean which is resistant to herbicides (RoundupReady Soybean). Besides, transgenic plants with resistance to pests. In thisfield,bacterial gene coding for a type of toxin which may kill insects isinserted into crop plants.

The toxin is more effective than pesticides and itgives the plant a permanent resistance to pests. Other than that, transgenicsalmon. In this field,it involve genetically modified Atlantic Salmon. Thesegenes enable the transgenic salmon not to reproduce only during spring andsummer but by applying this study, the transgenic salmon can grow throughoutthe whole year. They also adapt rapidly to a new environment,survive twice aslong as wild-type salmon, feed more efficiently than wild-type salmon and showaccelerated growth rate. Environmental DNA (eDNA)can be found from many kind of environment such as  soil, sediment, water, without any obvioussigns of biological source material, it is effective and also easy to bestandardize by sampling approach. When it involve biodiversity, environmentalDNA can be utilize to monitor it. Consequently, eDNA has been used to applied withinthe areas ranging from molecular biology, ecology, palaeontology andenvironmental sciences.

The nature of DNA from macro-organisms obtained fromthe environmental samples is different from targeting microbial organisms, asthe former is present only as parts of the organism, whereas the latter may bedetected by DNA deriving from whole, living organisms present in the samples.       Environmental DNA metabarcoding helps in surveyingthe animal and plant richness that was reviewed, and by using eDNA approaches,it will be challenging to estimate relative abundance. It was highlighted thateDNA applications in terrestrial environments help scientist to distill  the ability of different eDNA sample which canprovide many information about the plant species.There are many reasonswhy we need to have eDNA study in agriculture science, which are; ·        Enable identification of any threatstowards the plant. With this study, the scientists can identify the disease andtry to find the cure. We can avoid the threats from spreading to other plantsin other regions.  ·        Besides, eDNA techniques have been used toincrease the potential in the field of conservation biology surround the worldincluding for agriculture science.

Improvement in the agriculture yield can bedone so that land erosion can be prevented and also keeping the ground cover onthe soil.  ·        Thirdly, eDNA study can help in detecting the locations of threatened speciesacross all the environments around the world. eDNA is especially usefulfor studying species within specific populations and it is very excellent inconfirming the existence of plant species which can be known by having only thesoil sample.

 ·        Other thanthat, scientists also can find many rare species in plants by eDNA study.Throughout a day, there are many new species that have to be discovered and byapplying this eDNA study, it will help the scientist to classified the newspecies according to their own taxonomic.1)      William,Wesley (2014). “Environmental DNA From Biodiversity”. 15: 12–15 2)      Kidley,David M. (2009-03-23). “Diverse Plant Records from Sediments”.

Ecology.211: 196-200  3)      PhilipMerier; Evke (2014-05-09). ” Environmental DNA: A new tool to conservebiology. 189: 1–9 4)      Anderson,Evke (2010-03-06). “eDNA of Meta-Barcoding from soil reflects plant biodiversity”.

Molecular Ecology. 21 (8): 1966–1979  5)      DanisWellington; Clinton (2013). “Detection of species by using the environmentalDNA obtained from soil samples”. Biological Study. 6 (6): 329-333 

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