Disease Line Description: It’s the loss of the

Disease condition name: Agnosias Also Known As: Pronounced As: ag-noh-zhuh-s/?h?p ??ta? t?s/ One Line Description: It’s the loss of the ability to process sensory information. Short description:  ·         Causes: Brain neuronal degeneration due to disease and brain trauma affecting the sensory pathways. ·         Symptoms: Inability to recognize objects visually or through hearing, inability to name objects, color blindness ·         Treatment Surgery, speech therapy, use of color cues, and speech therapy Highlights:   Fact   Sample Value example Comments How common it is Rare.

    Common Stats (US) Less than 200,000 people     Is Treatable no known cure.     Is Diagnosis required diagnosed by medical professional.   Is Lab test or Imaging required diagnosis requires lab test or imaging.   Time, it takes to cure can be lifelong     Is Vaccine Available no vaccine available.   Does it spread & how not known to be contagious.

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  Age common for ages 50 and older.     Gender more common in females.     Can it be fatal/deadly (prognosis) not believed to be life threatening.     Is it hereditary not known to be hereditary.   Does it need emergency attention does not always require urgent medical attention.     Other fact 1-       Other fact 2-       More details   Generally, agnosia is said to be associative or apperceptive.

In associative agnosia a patient can perceive but cannot name or give meaning. However, in apperceptive there is loss of ability to perceive but the patient can name the object. For instance, visual agnosia can either be visual apperceptive or visual associative. Agnosias can be classified into three major categories ·         Visual agnosia There is reduced visual perception of objects, forgetting familiar faces. It may include inability to differentiate figures and color, reading and matching objects. Visual agnosia includes prosopagnosia, object and color agnosias ·         Auditory agnosia It is characterized by inability to recognize and comprehend sounds and words.

·         Tactile agnosia Loss of the ability to recognize objects through sense of touch. Patient cannot name the object but can perceive the weight or texture. Symptoms: Symptoms depend on the sensory pathway affected Inability to recognize objects visually Inability to distinguish shapes Color blindness Inability to recognize voices Loss of ability to interpret sounds Inability to recognize objects by sense of touch Loss of orientation and comprehension of time Causes: ·         Neuronal degeneration due to diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease ·         Brain trauma ·         Dementia ·         Hypoxia and carbon monoxide poisoning ·         Encephalitis How it doesn’t spread:   N/A Diagnosis: Diagnosis is based on ruling out other disease conditions with similar signs Brain imaging e.g. MRI, CT scan to identify lesions or in case of brain injury Visual field and visual acuity test to rule out visual field defects Ishihara vision tests to rule out color blindness Doing copying and matching tests of drawing to differentiate associative and apperceptive agnosia Cerebrospinal fluid examination Electroencephalogram to determine the electrical activity of the brain. Treatments: There is no cure for agnosia. Treatment is non-specific and is based on managing the precipitating cause.

I.     Medication ·         Antibiotics e.g. penicillin and cephalosporins to manage abscesses in the brain II.   Surgery / Medical Procedures ·         Surgery in case of brain trauma or tumor ·         Radiation to treat brain tumors III. Therapies ·         Speech therapy especially in associative agnosia where the patient has difficulty naming objects ·         Use of alternate cues to symbolize objects and rooms to help patient in remembering.

Prevention Agnosia cannot be prevented however, some factors such as obesity and smoking increase risk. Food to eat & Avoid Foods to eat ·         Whole grains, green vegetables e.g. spinach, broccoli, that are source of vitamins C, D, and E that improve mental acuity Foods to avoid ·         Animal products e.g.

red meat and fish consumption should be limited Specialist that one should meet if they have this condition:   A neurologist  for diagnosing any neuronal abnormality or neurological disorders Ear nose and throat (ENT) specialist Ophthalmologist that specializes in visual care Complications:  Hallucinations that may be severe Perception disorders Questions to ask your Doctor ·         What causes agnosia? ·         What are the types of agnosias? ·         Is agnosia curable? ·         What are the signs and symptoms? ·         Is it hereditary? ·         Is it psychological? ·         Is it contagious?

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