Discuss the Process of Apoptosis and its Importance in Development and Immunity
Apoptosis, otherwise known as Programmed Cell Death (PCD), is a process which allows cells to commit suicide to help aid organisms in growth and to avoid any possibilities of acquiring diseases. Although there are many types of PCD, it tends to be compared to Necrosis, but they’re used under different conditions, each having a separate, different process for PCD. The process and the purpose of apoptosis within development have been researched in numerous different organisms like in mice and the C. elegans worm. It plays a vital part in the immune system to keep an organism healthy. If there’s unnecessary or not enough apoptosis occurring within humans, then it can lead to many different severe disorders or diseases like cancers, autoimmune diseases or neurological and cardiovascular diseases.
Apoptosis neatly makes cells suicide without causing any harm to the surrounding cells. On the other hand, necrosis often damages the surrounding cells which tend to result in the area becoming inflamed. In the first stages of apoptosis, the cells would begin to shrink which therefore results in the cells to become smaller with a denser cytoplasm. Thus, the organelles within the cell become more compact and firmly packed together. After that, chromatin condensation occurs so the surfaces of the chromatin clusters and clumps together into many different shapes. It then develops blebs because the cytoplasm blebs out, which are like bubbly-shaped lumps, onto the plasma membrane. When the blebs disconnect and buds off from the plasma membrane, they become apoptotic bodies with organelles inside. This divides the entire cell into smaller chunks. The organelles are the cell fragments that can be recycled through phagocytosis very quickly. The macrophages are attracted towards the apoptotic bodies, when the signals are released, to engulf them by using its pseudopodia to surround it. It when starts to digest the apoptotic bodies which would be inside the phagocytic vacuole that fuses together with a lysosome. The apoptotic bodies will break down after the lysozymes get released from the lysosomes. As soon as the apoptotic bodies are digested, the macrophages become tingible body macrophages which can be stained.