Digital financial loss (p.29). A type of

      DigitalComputer Crime                                                           Brandon Passer                                                       Professor Neal Basta                                                         CIS170 1/16/2018                                                         Strayer University                      Abstract            Themost challenging type of crime to combat today is computer crime or otherwise known as cybercrime. Cybercrime is essentially an actof crime that involves the use of a computer. In society today, this could involve manydifferent types of computers since almost everything that we use has computer that allows it tofunction.  There are several different motives of why someone would want to use a computer tocommit a crime.

Their motives are also, not as simple as one would might think.  Often what a criminal is seeking is some typeof information. This is what makes up information warfare.

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 According to Taylor (2015), there are four categories of cybercrimes; infrastructureattacks, information attacks, technological facilitation, and promotion (p.24).  However, one of these categories presentswhat can be seen as a major issue for many government agencies withinthe U.S. There are also some very common forms of computer crimes that can causeproblems for many people, including the government. Each government agency has its own plan or strategy to combat such typesof crimes.

 Typesof Cybercrime            There are four categoriesof computer crime: infrastructure attacks, information attacks, technological facilitation, and promotion.  Each one of these has a specific function andpresents a specific problem for combating it.  Infrastructure attacks are essentiallyfocused on destroying a computer system or network that keeps a countriesinfrastructure intact. The United States has many examples of infrastructure that can be exposedwhich can then cause the infrastructure to be compromised. According to Taylor (2015), one suchtype of infrastructure attack could be compromising a computer system that controls passengerand freight train routing systems which could cause trains to collide (p.28).

This could leadto death or injury to people involved. Another, more frightening type of infrastructureattack, could be compromising the nuclear power supply system of the United States. This type ofattack could cause a meltdown and a crisis in which many people could die due toexposure to nuclear radiation.  The next category of computer crime is informationattacks.  This type of attack tends to bemore focused on destroying and changing data files.  According to Taylor (2015), This type ofattack can cause the most economic and financial loss (p.29).  A type of this form of attack are viruses and worms.

These are essentially computer programs thatcan make copies of themselves which can cause harm or damage to a computer system.  Viruses and worms have differences aswell.  A virus is a type of coding that infects a computersability to give instruction. It can cause such damage such as completely deleting files from a harddrive or corrupting data to the point where it can no longer function.  The most frightening aspect about a virus isthat it can lay in wait within a computer program for a long period of timeand a victim may never know that it was ever present.

 Worms are programs that can reproduce through a computer network by compromising other computer systems.  They essentially act as a digital form of ahacker. They often work more faster and more direct than a virusdoes and can cause larger amounts of damage.  Anotherform of attack is through technological facilitation.  This form of attack is more of an indirect one.  It involves the use of technology to organizepotential attacks through the use of online communication.

  A type of attack is through the organization of”flash mobs” or “smart mobs”. These types of attacks involve the mass gathering of people at aspecific place and time.  Thiscan be done through the simple use of text communication or social mediaoutlets such as Facebook or Twitter.  The final form of attack is also indirect andthat is through the use of promotion. This involves websites that are structured to specifically benefit acriminal organizations cause or agenda.  Examples of promotion include websites that ageared towards gaining numbers or websites that can be used tocollect donations to help fund a criminal orterrorist organization. MostThreatening Form of Cybercrime            Now, the most dangerousand threatening category of cyber crime is through information  attacks.  Information attacks can cause significantharm and can cost billions of dollars in loss.

 According to the FBI’s website, one such dangerousform of information attack is Ransomware. Ransomware is a type of malware that takes data thatholds value hostage.  Hackers that use ransomware essentially ask for some type of currencyin return for the data.  Most common way that this form of attack is usually spread usingemail.  Usually someone who is unsuspecting will click on these emails and open filesthat are attached to the email which carry the harmful ransomware.

  Once the ransomware infects the computer, itspreads to every aspect of the computer including file folders, harddrives, back up drives and any drive that is attached to the computer physically.  It can even spread to other computers thatare sharing the same network. The FBI sates that this type of malware is becoming moresophisticated.  A large scale computer attack like this could cause victims tolose millions of data as well as millions of dollars.  TheFBI also does not recommend that any victim that suffers such an attackactually give in and pay the ransom.  Even if a victim does pay the ransom they arenot necessarily guaranteed to receive their data back.             Thereare several government agencies within the United States that are constantlytrying to combat cybercrime.

 These agencies include the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI), Department of Homeland Security(DHS), the FederalTrade Commission (FTC), the U.S. Secret Service, US Customs and Immigration Enforcement (ICE)and The U.S. Department of Justice (DOJ).

  The rolethat the FBI plays in combating cybercrime is that it conducts investigations into cybercrime as well as making arrests. TheDepartment of Homeland Security also conducts investigations into cybercrime as well as working withother government agencies. They also create tools in fighting cybercrime and share thosetools with other government agencies.  TheFederal Trade Commission is tasked with protectingconsumers from potential attacks.  TheU.S. Secret Service essentially controls the ElectronicCrimes Task Force.

  This special taskforce was created to locate and track down international cybercriminals who are involved in many forms of cybercrime such as data breaches and bankfraud.  The US Customs and Immigration Enforcement are tasked with creating anti cybercrimetechniques to support in the protection of borders. They are also tasked with investigating intothe exploitation of children.  The U.S. Department of Justice investigates child pornographyand is tasked with prosecuting cyber criminals.   Conclusionand What Can the U.

S Government Do Better? The one way that lawenforcement agencies can better counteract computer crime would be to work with foreign governments to increase theirlevel of jurisdiction. These agencies only have a certain level that they can reach in stoppingcyber criminals.  For instance, if a databreach was to occur from another country and it affected oursecurity over in the United States, these law enforcement agencies may be limited in what theycan do to bring the perpetrator to justice because of jurisdiction lines.  By increasing a level of jurisdiction, thiscan act as a potential deterrent for cybercrime.  A potential cybercriminal may realize thatthere could be harsh penalties for such an act at an international level,thus he or she may not feel inclined to commit the act.

                 References Taylor, R. W., Fritsch, E. J., & Liederbach, J.(2015).

Digital Crime and Digital Terrorism (3rd ed.). Boston: Pearson Cyber Crime. (2017, March 22). Retrieved January 18,2018, from  Brain, M.

, & Fenlon, W. (2000, April 01). HowComputer Viruses Work. Retrieved January 18, 2018, from https://computer.howstuffworks.

com/virus.htm Combating Cyber Crime. (2017, June 20). RetrievedJanuary 18, 2018, from Wolf, U.

(2009, January 27). Cyber-Crime: LawEnforcement Must Keep Pace with Tech-Savvy Criminals. Retrieved January 19,2018, from http://www.govtech.

com/dc/articles/Cyber-Crime-Law-Enforcement-Must-Keep-Pace.html?page=1 Brown, J. (2016, August 17). 5 Federal Agencies with aRole in Ensuring Enterprise Cybersecurity. Retrieved January 19, 2018, from                       


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