2. 3. These rivers receive water only from

2. The Himalayan rivers flow through deep l-shaped valleys called gorges which have been carved out by down cutting carried on side by side with the uplift of the Himalayas. They signify ante­cedent drainage. 3. The Himalayan rivers are perennial in nature where water flows throughout the year received from both snow melt and monsoon rain. 4.

These rivers flow across the young fold mountain and are still in youthful stage. 5. These rivers form meander in plain areas because of huge sediment carried and deposited by them in the plains which obstruct their flow and force them to flow in zig-zag shape (meander). 6. The Himalayan rivers form huge delta at their mouth which is the result of deposition of sedi­ment at mouth. 7. Extensive catchment area 8. Rain fed and snowfed 9.

High erosive capability 10. Develop gorges in the mountains and meanders in the plains 11. Inland navigation is possible in the plains.

Peninsular River System:

1. These rivers have small basins and catchment areas. The Godavari having basin area of 3.12 lakh sq.

kms is less than 1/3rd of Indus (11.65 sq. kms.) 2. Peninsular rivers flow in more or less graded valley having little erosional activities to perform They signify consequent drainage. 3. These rivers receive water only from monsoon rainfall and flows in rainy seasons.

Therefore they are seasonal rivers. 4. These rivers have attained maturity because they flow through oldest plateaus of the world. 5.

These rivers have been flowing on the oldest plateau having hard rock surface of non- alluvial character forcing them not to flow zig-zag shape. As such they flow in more or less in straight course. 6. The river like Narmada and Tapti make estuaries whereas other big river forms deltas like Godavari and Cauvery. 7. Comparatively small catchment area 8.

Reinfed 9. Low erosive capability 10. Deep valleys are not produced as they flow through hard crystalline rocks 11.

Less chances for inland navigation.

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