Dewey we nurture and teach. (p. 229) According

Dewey (1933) considersreflection not only as a way of emancipatingfrom merely impulsive and routine activity in teachingbut also as a way of professional development in teaching.

To him, reflection, asone of the most significant characteristics of a teacher, has a great impact onthe quality of schools and instruction (Dewey, 1933). Schön (1987), one of theother prominent scholars in the area of reflection, states that novice teacherscan enhance their practice through reflection if it takes place throughout theteaching process. Similarly, Day(1999b), acknowledging the significance of reflection for teaching, arguesthat: Without routinely engaging in reflectivepractice, it is unlikely that we will be able to understand the effects of ourmotivations, prejudices, and aspirations upon the ways in which we create,manage, receive, sift, and evaluate knowledge; and as importantly, the ways inwhich we are influencing the lives, directions, and achievements of those whomwe nurture and teach.

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(p. 229)According to the literature, reflection canoccur in three forms: reflection-in-action (in the mid of theaction), reflection-on-action (after the event), and reflection-for-action(before the action) (Farrell, 2012). Reflection in any type is thought of as the process oflearning through and from experience to obtain fresh insights intoself and practice (Finlay, 2008; Schön 1983, 1987). Procedurally, reflection entails a lookingforward to what teachers want to achieve, as well as a casting backward to seewhere they have achieved. It involves individuals in critically appraising theirown responses to practice situations (Finlay, 2008), and makes them take moreresponsibility for their actions (Farrell, 1998).

Reflection either intuitive or systematic makes itpossible for teachers to see what is visible to others but a mysteryto themselves; it raises teachers’ awareness of their strengths and weaknesses, unravelingperplexity during teaching (Christodoulou, 2010; Salmani Nodoushan,2011). Without such awareness, professionalgrowth of teacher might not be sufficient. Sincemost of what teachers learn is gained through their in-classexperiences, reflective practice plays a crucial role in helping the teachersto promote their profession (Day, 1993); as Osterman (1990) postulates “professional growth oftendepends not merely on developing new ideas or theories of action by reflection,but on eliminating or modifying those old ideas that have beenshaping behavior” (p.

135). Reflection as a process of scrutiny helps teachers better understand andextend their professional activity, systematize,and construct professional knowledge (Poom-Valickis , 2013).Reflective practice empowers teachers to critically analyze and


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