Development of Asia and Latin America (ADB

Development and maintenance of physical infrastructure are key to economic growth and development as well as harnessing poverty reduction. Production costs, employment creation, access to markets, and investment depend on the quality of infrastructure, most especially in transport (Ikiara et al. 2000; Chai & Yusof, 2013). Road transport is the most widely used means of transportation globally. The fragmentary nature of the railway system and the limitations imposed on the scope of inland water transport by geographical factors mean that transport of people and freight by rail and inland waterways has to be supplemented, usually by road transport over long distances (Ikiara et al. 2000 cited by Chai & Yusof, 2013).Infrastructural development through construction of new roads and maintenance of existing ones is a fundamental aspect in development of every economy. The total percentage of the global cover of the paved roads was measured as 64.94% in 2009 according to the World Bank. Paved roads are those surfaced with crushed stone (Macadam) and hydrocarbon binder or bituminized agents, with concrete, or with cobblestones as a percentage of all country’s roads measured in length (World Bank WDI:2013). The data available show that Africa had approximately 311,184 km of paved roads in 1996 with approximately half of them in poor condition. According to African Development Bank, With the exception of Mauritius and the North African countries of Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, and Tunisia, paved roads account for less than 50 per cent of the road network in Africa. Indeed, paved roads in sub-Saharan Africa account for less than 17 per cent in 1996, with many countries falling below the average. About 57 per cent of the roads in North Africa were paved compared to 25 per cent in South Africa and 10.2 per cent in Central Africa. Road density per unit area of one km2 is generally much lower than those of Asia and Latin America (ADB 1999:122; World Bank, 2014).Traditionally in most African countries road building has been given a higher priority than road maintenance and monitoring and evaluation during construction, with scant attention to the imperatives of recurrent costs of road management once the road has been constructed. In a study on road deterioration in developing countries, Harral and Faiz (1988) estimated the annual monitoring, evaluation and maintenance expenditure required to prevent road deterioration. On average, expenditures for 1986–1990 varied from 0.2% of GDP for countries in East Asia and the Pacific to 1% for countries in West Africa. They estimated that the backlog of maintenance work varied from 1.6% of GDP in East Asia and the Pacific to 3.5% in South Asia. Different countries have adopted aspects of this approach. For example, Ghana came up with a commission the National Development Planning Commission (NDPC) as a regulatory policy to assimilate the principle of M operations. NDPC adapted the Results Based Monitoring and Evaluation System (RBMES) and Results Based Budgeting (RBB) in the M process. This was purposely to ensure cost effectiveness, institutional capacity strengthening, promotion of good governance and accountability as well as credibility to the partners and government.One of the objectives of Kenya vision 2030 is to develop and maintain existing road networks in order to improve access as well as spur movement of people and goods (Kenya Rural Roads Authority, 2005). Road projects are planned and executed for a certain period of time called gestation period or life-span after which they  come to an end and the community in partnership with county government is expected to continue running the project and make them self-sustaining (Kenya Rural Roads Authority, 2005).Information from the World Bank report on world’s paved road indicates that Kenya had a partly 14.3% of paved roads as a percentage total of the entire roads in year 2010 (World Bank WDI: 2013). The transport sector in Kenya comprises a road network with 169,886 km of roads and 350,000 vehicles, a single-track railway running from Mombasa to Uganda, a major seaport at Mombasa, small ports at Lamu and Malindi, a ferry service to Uganda, an oil pipeline from Mombasa to Kisumu via Nairobi and Eldoret, four international and many small airports, and three inland container depots (IEA 1998). With a 34% share in the total transport sector in 1998, road transport has the highest contribution to national output among the transport systems. It is followed by air transport, with 25%, and water transport, with 16% (Ikiara et al. 2000). Considering that this level of performance was achieved over a period of deficient road maintenance, it is obvious that the subsector and by implication the road infrastructure policy— holds the potential for rapid economic growth and poverty reduction through its influence on production costs, employment creation, access to markets, and investment (Howe and Richards 1984; van de Walle 1996; GoK 2014). Out of the 169,886 km of total road network in Kenya, only 11,197km is classified as paved while the remaining 149,689 is unpaved (KRB, APRP FY 2012/2013). This therefore implies that quality roads are critical for development of any country. Fast deteriorating state of roads in Kenya calls for need to focus on monitoring and evaluation of roads during construction. This study will focus on determinants influencing monitoring of road construction projects.The main institutions that carry out implementation construction and improvement of road networks in Kenya are in two distinct levels; The National government on one hand through the responsible ministries and the county governments which absorbed the services of the now defunct municipal councils. Others include private entities and Non-Governmental Organizations (Republic of Kenya, 2010)The Ministry of Transport and Infrastructure of Kenya discharges this mandate through four key parastatals namely; The Kenya Roads Board (KRB), The Kenya National Highways Authority (KeNHA), The Kenya Rural Roads Authority (KeRRA) and the Kenya Urban Roads Authority (KURA). Kenya Roads Board (KRB) is mandated with accessing for funds through the Central Government and allocation of these funds on need basis to the other sister Authorities (Kenya Gazzette, 2006). In relation to this detailed historical development and management of national highways in Kenya, monitoring and evaluation has not been bought well by the relevant bodies/stakeholder like the contractors, financial controllers, ministries handing the projects via various funding bodies etc. A number of studies have focused on the M&E strategy but have ignored the basic factors influencing the strategy. According to the comparative study done by Republic of Kenya (2014) on the state of its national highways in 43 out of the 47 counties, 983 respondents were given individual questionnaires via the e-mobile technology of data collection as assisted by the afro-barometer secondary information gathers. The results showed that, on the issue of M&E of the proposed highways besides the continuing ones, 947 respondents strongly agreed that factors like the personnel, funds, M&E planning; organisational culture, communication, contractor’s experience, political heat and many more influenced the M process.In 2010, Kenyans enacted a new constitution which established a system of devolved government with 47 lower level county governments .These new 47 county governments are now in charge of overseeing some functions like maintenance of constructed local roads. The County Government of Kericho has taken up the responsibility to ensure that the roads are sustainable.World Vision (2009) most infrastructural projects have failed to sustain themselves, become self-reliant and the communities have failed to continue running them after funding organizations withdraw their support. Some factors which should have been worked out, in order to stop this trend of projects collapsing are not done despite support being meant for a specified period with the objective of making the projects self-reliant.


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