DESIGN difficult task like fire control, deflection of

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF MICRO
UNMANNED AIR VEHICLEV(MUAV) FOR MULTI PURPOSES

 

 

ABSTRACT:

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For You For Only $13.90/page!


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This paper mainly presents the design and analysis
of micro UAV which has many applications in different areas. The technology
employed in the design of this ‘MUAV’ is adapted from the mechanism of
tiltrotor, which can be fabricated as rotor mav it is similar to helicopter and
hovercraft. The wing attach/detach mechanism/technique is also used for the
aircraft better portability.

The main constituents of this aircraft are
visualized camera and a speaker which can be used for surveillance and multi
purposes. All the actions of this MUAV will be controlled by the remote where
the specific person can view and communicate the target

 

Keywords:Micro
Unmanned Air Vehicle(MUAV), Tiltrotor, Portability, Design, Wing attach/detach

 

1.
INTROUCTION:                                         

The basic concept of micro sized unmanned
aerialvehicles or (MAV) has started increasing interest over the past few years
for military applications

In the year 1992,RAND reported on a study conducted
for the defense advanced research project agency(DARPA) stated that the great
use of micro devices for the wide range of military applications. Firstly UAVs
are autonomous, the main motto is to remove human for the regular wars and basic
human casualty

Basically the MAVs have wide arch range of coverage
in military operations including the difficult task like fire control,
deflection of intruders, border patrol,traffic surveillance and riot controls

Today’s piloted military aircrafts are basically
equipped with high end technology in order to protect and safe guard the life
of pilot which increases the cost and weight but most UAVs can be easily
configured for some particular missions which carries the simple hardware
system for the completing  the mission. The
UAVs can be lighter and cheaper because they don’t carry life supporting system.
Recent developments in the UAV field like the cargo carrier drone created by
BOIENG show that UAV s are capable of doing dangerous, heavier and complex
works very efficiently. So in order to make them more efficient we have
incorporated VTOL mechanism.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.1  Classification:

UAVs are basically classified into six functional
categories

·        
Target and decoy                                -It provides aerial and ground target simulates an enemy missile
or enemy aircraft                              

·        
Reconnaissance                                   -It gives battle field intelligence

·        
Combat                                               -It specifies the attack capability
for high risk missions

·        
Logistics                                              -It
specifies the cargo delivery

·        
Research and
development                 – Improve in
UAV latest technology

·        
Civil and
commercial UAVs  – Aerial photography , agriculture , medical emergency , data
collection

 

2. VTOL(Vertical Take Off and Landing)

In
this project we completed VTOL(vertical takeoff and landing) mechanism in which
can vertically takeoff. It’s like a rotary wing aircraft .In forward flight the
main lift is generated by the air stream flowing over its using which makes it
more efficient then a rotary wing aircraft Besides there are currently only 2
VTOL(vertical takeoff and landing) in the defense  field.

1.V-22
osprey

2.F-35B(JSF)

On the other hand in the civil section presently
only helicopters are in use and some other VTOL(vertical takeoff and landing)
aircraft an under development as of 2017. In general VTOL(vertical takeoff and
landing)are enough capable of  short
takeoff and vertical landing (STOL) where ever it can be possible

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.1VTOL
Mechanism Evaluation

 

In
this phase we took up with several ideas which fit our project. The main motto which
should not exceed the weight, then we finalized the top three ideas and started
the evaluation process by considering all the factors which effects on the
design stage

 

 
NAME

 
L
TYPE MECHANISM

 
RATI-NG
10

 
QUAD
TILT ROTOR MECHANISM

 
RATI-NG
10

 
WING
SPAR MECHANISM

 
RATI-NG
10

 
Background
 

https://www.stlfinder.com/model/fpv-board-camera-angle-bracket-1axis-servo-gimbal/4971038

 
   _


 

 
   _

https://www.google.co.in/search?q=vtol+wing+mechanics

 
   _

 
Diagram

 
 
 
_

 

 

 
 
 
_

 

 
 
 
_

 
Structure and components
 

 
 
3d printed L-type component
 

 
 
6

 
 
Plastic and wood
 

 
 
8

 
 
Aluminum rod and
bevel gears
 

 
 
8

 
Functions

 
Vertical to horizontal
 

 
9

 
Vertical to horizontal
 

 
8

 
Vertical to horizontal
 

 
6

 
Material used

 
PLA
 

 
8

 
Wood and PLA
 

 
9

 
Aluminum and PLA
 

 
10

 
Weight
 

 
15-20gms
 

 
10

 
20-30gms
 

 
8

 
100-150gms
 

 
5

 
Strength

 
Medium
 

 
8

 
Medium
 

 
8

 
High amount
 

 
10

 
Placed to b fixed
 

 
At C/4 of the wing
 

 
9

 
Tip of the wing
 

 
6

 
Tip of the wing
 

 
6

 
Fabrication
 

 
Easily can
fabricate by using 3d printing
 

 
10

Proper adjustment
should be at the angle where it can be tilted properly
 

 
6

 
Little complicated
to fabricate and it increases the weight
 

 
6

 
Outcome

 
Easily can be rotated by fixing

 
10

Proper angle  adjustment
with the motor can be easily takeoff vertically
 

 
7

It can be tilted by using single servo which is attached to wing
spar
 

 
5

 
Pros and cons
 

*Easily can be
manufactured                               
*proper adjustment of servo to motor
 

 
8

*Vertical takeoff and
horizontal motion         *Difficult to
adjust the motor with the angle and servo
 

 
6

 
*Increases the
weight                                                        *Req. High
torque
 

 
4

 
TOTAL

 

 
78

 

 
66

 

 
60

 

 

 

 

 

 

Justification
of L type..!!!!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.Folding wing Mechanism

The main motto of this technique is for the portability
a new technique is opted in which the wing will divide into two equal halves. So
that the space required for the wing will be reduced which is easy to carry.

 

3.1Folding wing evaluation

In
this typical stage we had gone through different ideas which suitable the
constraint. The main Moto is to increase the portability without any damage to
its structure , then we came up with two different  ideas and started the initial evaluation
process by considering all the factors which effects on the design stage
without increasing the weight.

NAME

HINGE MECHANISM

RATING
10

SPRING
MECHANISM

RATING
10

Background

http://www.iitk.ac.in/nicee/wcee/article/13_158.pdf

.-

https://www.acxesspring.com/mechanical-springs.html/

.-

Diagram

 

.-

.-

Structure
and components

PLASTIC AND FIBER

8

MS STEEL

9

Functions

Foldable wings

9

Force to fold wings

6

Material
used

Plastic and fiber

8

steel

9

Weight

45

10

65

6

Strength

High

9

High

10

Placed
to b fixed

Mid of the wing in the reverse
Direction

8

Down part of the wing with a equal
distance from mid part

8

Fabrication

Easily can b fixed by
using screws

9

Little complicated to
Fabricate by using hooks

7

Outcome

Easily foldable with high strength

9

Foldable with high force and
strength

8

TOTAL

                     _

79

                     _

70

 

 

 

 

Justification
of hinge type..!!!!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4. Design
process

Basically
the MUAV design process id classified in to 3 stages

1.     
Conceptual
Design.

Ø  Requirements of
the aircraft

Ø  Draft design of
the aircraft

 

2.     
Preliminary
Design.

Ø Evaluation
of required Mechanism

Ø Payload
Estimation

Ø Evaluation
of Propulsion System

Ø Determination
of C.G

 

3.    
Detailed
Design.

Ø Fixing
of Mechanism

Ø Assembly
of Components

Ø Flight
Tests

Ø Analysis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.1
Weight estimation:

Weight estimation is done on the basis
of the maximum payload which the model should able to carry. The maximum
payload weight is considered as 0.5 kgs.

 

 

 

 

4.2
Airfoil Selection:-  

Depending on the gross weight of the
MUAV the required lift and the performance of the plane depends largely on the
type of airfoil selected . According to our requirements the airfoil should generate
high lift and low drag and thickness to chord ratio should lie between 12% to
14% . Considering all the requirements we have selected HAM-STD 1712 airfoil.

There is a small residual moment
generated by the airfoil which is balanced by tail of the MUAV.

4.3
Aspect ratio:-

 For typical RC planes the aspect ratio differs from
4 to 8 so we have calculated the area of the wing requiredat different stall
speeds. Different values of chord and wing span has been calculated for
different aspect ratios and finally the feasible value is selected that is aspect
ratio 6.

Fig: Matlab code for
calculation of surface area of wing.

4.4 Wing calculation:-

 

AR

S

W

CLmax

Vstall

Vapp

L

L/W

B

C

Vc

Lc

L/W

6

0.223224

19.62

1.0377

10

11

23.54

1.2

1.574

0.192

13

23.94

1.22

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For different aspect ratiothe different
values of wing span and chord are calculated from the area values obtained from
mat lab calculations.

4.5
Fuselage calculation: – standard value
for fuselage length is calculated as 70% of the total wing span.

4.6 Tail calculation:-

H tail is selected as the rudder
effectiveness is more for H tail when compared to the conventional tail.

 

4.7 Drag calculation:-

Drag is calculated using
the formula D= 0.5*rho* v^2*s* Cl

Here coefficient of drag is the sum of
coefficients of frontal area drag , induced drag and skin friction drag.

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.    

Modeling
and Analysis:-

Modelling
of the whole model is done using CATIA V 5 software. We have chosen this
software as it is simple to operate.

All
the parts such as fuselage, Tail, wing are modelled separately in part design
and are assembled together in assembly module.

Analysis
is done for the wing that is both structural and flow analysis are done on the wing.
The forces considered on the wing while analyzing were the pressure acting on
the wing while it is at its cruising speed. The pressure value is calculated
with respect to the atmospheric value and the factor of safety for the wing
structure is 2.

The
results of the analysis are given below.

5.1Structural
analysis on Wing:-

Structural
analysis is done to determine the static strength of the structure mainly wings
as they are the main parts where large forces act . Structural Analysis is done
using Ansys workbench and the results obtained are in the forms of stress contours
that is maximum stress, maximum deformation etc.

 

 

5.2
CFD analysis on A/c:- Flow analysis is
one of the very important type of analysis as it determines the magnitude of
the aerodynamic forces acting on the wing such as lift and drag. The figures
show the residual plots of the flow around the MUAV. The conditions are optimized
for maximum cruise velocity achieved that is 13m/s.

 The results obtained are  Drag
=        

Lift =

 

 

 

The contours of velocity magnitude over
the complete MUAV are shown in above picture and the maximum values are
obtained on the wing surface.

 

 

 

Contours of static
pressure obtained when the values are projected on a plane .

Lift on the plane is
given the z component velocity of the MUAV when it is flying at cruise
velocity. We assumed that there are no other components and equating x and y
components to zero.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF MICRO
UNMANNED AIR VEHICLEV(MUAV) FOR MULTI PURPOSES

 

 

ABSTRACT:

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!


order now

This paper mainly presents the design and analysis
of micro UAV which has many applications in different areas. The technology
employed in the design of this ‘MUAV’ is adapted from the mechanism of
tiltrotor, which can be fabricated as rotor mav it is similar to helicopter and
hovercraft. The wing attach/detach mechanism/technique is also used for the
aircraft better portability.

The main constituents of this aircraft are
visualized camera and a speaker which can be used for surveillance and multi
purposes. All the actions of this MUAV will be controlled by the remote where
the specific person can view and communicate the target

 

Keywords:Micro
Unmanned Air Vehicle(MUAV), Tiltrotor, Portability, Design, Wing attach/detach

 

1.
INTROUCTION:                                         

The basic concept of micro sized unmanned
aerialvehicles or (MAV) has started increasing interest over the past few years
for military applications

In the year 1992,RAND reported on a study conducted
for the defense advanced research project agency(DARPA) stated that the great
use of micro devices for the wide range of military applications. Firstly UAVs
are autonomous, the main motto is to remove human for the regular wars and basic
human casualty

Basically the MAVs have wide arch range of coverage
in military operations including the difficult task like fire control,
deflection of intruders, border patrol,traffic surveillance and riot controls

Today’s piloted military aircrafts are basically
equipped with high end technology in order to protect and safe guard the life
of pilot which increases the cost and weight but most UAVs can be easily
configured for some particular missions which carries the simple hardware
system for the completing  the mission. The
UAVs can be lighter and cheaper because they don’t carry life supporting system.
Recent developments in the UAV field like the cargo carrier drone created by
BOIENG show that UAV s are capable of doing dangerous, heavier and complex
works very efficiently. So in order to make them more efficient we have
incorporated VTOL mechanism.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.1  Classification:

UAVs are basically classified into six functional
categories

·        
Target and decoy                                -It provides aerial and ground target simulates an enemy missile
or enemy aircraft                              

·        
Reconnaissance                                   -It gives battle field intelligence

·        
Combat                                               -It specifies the attack capability
for high risk missions

·        
Logistics                                              -It
specifies the cargo delivery

·        
Research and
development                 – Improve in
UAV latest technology

·        
Civil and
commercial UAVs  – Aerial photography , agriculture , medical emergency , data
collection

 

2. VTOL(Vertical Take Off and Landing)

In
this project we completed VTOL(vertical takeoff and landing) mechanism in which
can vertically takeoff. It’s like a rotary wing aircraft .In forward flight the
main lift is generated by the air stream flowing over its using which makes it
more efficient then a rotary wing aircraft Besides there are currently only 2
VTOL(vertical takeoff and landing) in the defense  field.

1.V-22
osprey

2.F-35B(JSF)

On the other hand in the civil section presently
only helicopters are in use and some other VTOL(vertical takeoff and landing)
aircraft an under development as of 2017. In general VTOL(vertical takeoff and
landing)are enough capable of  short
takeoff and vertical landing (STOL) where ever it can be possible

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.1VTOL
Mechanism Evaluation

 

In
this phase we took up with several ideas which fit our project. The main motto which
should not exceed the weight, then we finalized the top three ideas and started
the evaluation process by considering all the factors which effects on the
design stage

 

 
NAME

 
L
TYPE MECHANISM

 
RATI-NG
10

 
QUAD
TILT ROTOR MECHANISM

 
RATI-NG
10

 
WING
SPAR MECHANISM

 
RATI-NG
10

 
Background
 

https://www.stlfinder.com/model/fpv-board-camera-angle-bracket-1axis-servo-gimbal/4971038

 
   _


 

 
   _

https://www.google.co.in/search?q=vtol+wing+mechanics

 
   _

 
Diagram

 
 
 
_

 

 

 
 
 
_

 

 
 
 
_

 
Structure and components
 

 
 
3d printed L-type component
 

 
 
6

 
 
Plastic and wood
 

 
 
8

 
 
Aluminum rod and
bevel gears
 

 
 
8

 
Functions

 
Vertical to horizontal
 

 
9

 
Vertical to horizontal
 

 
8

 
Vertical to horizontal
 

 
6

 
Material used

 
PLA
 

 
8

 
Wood and PLA
 

 
9

 
Aluminum and PLA
 

 
10

 
Weight
 

 
15-20gms
 

 
10

 
20-30gms
 

 
8

 
100-150gms
 

 
5

 
Strength

 
Medium
 

 
8

 
Medium
 

 
8

 
High amount
 

 
10

 
Placed to b fixed
 

 
At C/4 of the wing
 

 
9

 
Tip of the wing
 

 
6

 
Tip of the wing
 

 
6

 
Fabrication
 

 
Easily can
fabricate by using 3d printing
 

 
10

Proper adjustment
should be at the angle where it can be tilted properly
 

 
6

 
Little complicated
to fabricate and it increases the weight
 

 
6

 
Outcome

 
Easily can be rotated by fixing

 
10

Proper angle  adjustment
with the motor can be easily takeoff vertically
 

 
7

It can be tilted by using single servo which is attached to wing
spar
 

 
5

 
Pros and cons
 

*Easily can be
manufactured                               
*proper adjustment of servo to motor
 

 
8

*Vertical takeoff and
horizontal motion         *Difficult to
adjust the motor with the angle and servo
 

 
6

 
*Increases the
weight                                                        *Req. High
torque
 

 
4

 
TOTAL

 

 
78

 

 
66

 

 
60

 

 

 

 

 

 

Justification
of L type..!!!!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.Folding wing Mechanism

The main motto of this technique is for the portability
a new technique is opted in which the wing will divide into two equal halves. So
that the space required for the wing will be reduced which is easy to carry.

 

3.1Folding wing evaluation

In
this typical stage we had gone through different ideas which suitable the
constraint. The main Moto is to increase the portability without any damage to
its structure , then we came up with two different  ideas and started the initial evaluation
process by considering all the factors which effects on the design stage
without increasing the weight.

NAME

HINGE MECHANISM

RATING
10

SPRING
MECHANISM

RATING
10

Background

http://www.iitk.ac.in/nicee/wcee/article/13_158.pdf

.-

https://www.acxesspring.com/mechanical-springs.html/

.-

Diagram

 

.-

.-

Structure
and components

PLASTIC AND FIBER

8

MS STEEL

9

Functions

Foldable wings

9

Force to fold wings

6

Material
used

Plastic and fiber

8

steel

9

Weight

45

10

65

6

Strength

High

9

High

10

Placed
to b fixed

Mid of the wing in the reverse
Direction

8

Down part of the wing with a equal
distance from mid part

8

Fabrication

Easily can b fixed by
using screws

9

Little complicated to
Fabricate by using hooks

7

Outcome

Easily foldable with high strength

9

Foldable with high force and
strength

8

TOTAL

                     _

79

                     _

70

 

 

 

 

Justification
of hinge type..!!!!

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4. Design
process

Basically
the MUAV design process id classified in to 3 stages

1.     
Conceptual
Design.

Ø  Requirements of
the aircraft

Ø  Draft design of
the aircraft

 

2.     
Preliminary
Design.

Ø Evaluation
of required Mechanism

Ø Payload
Estimation

Ø Evaluation
of Propulsion System

Ø Determination
of C.G

 

3.    
Detailed
Design.

Ø Fixing
of Mechanism

Ø Assembly
of Components

Ø Flight
Tests

Ø Analysis

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.1
Weight estimation:

Weight estimation is done on the basis
of the maximum payload which the model should able to carry. The maximum
payload weight is considered as 0.5 kgs.

 

 

 

 

4.2
Airfoil Selection:-  

Depending on the gross weight of the
MUAV the required lift and the performance of the plane depends largely on the
type of airfoil selected . According to our requirements the airfoil should generate
high lift and low drag and thickness to chord ratio should lie between 12% to
14% . Considering all the requirements we have selected HAM-STD 1712 airfoil.

There is a small residual moment
generated by the airfoil which is balanced by tail of the MUAV.

4.3
Aspect ratio:-

 For typical RC planes the aspect ratio differs from
4 to 8 so we have calculated the area of the wing requiredat different stall
speeds. Different values of chord and wing span has been calculated for
different aspect ratios and finally the feasible value is selected that is aspect
ratio 6.

Fig: Matlab code for
calculation of surface area of wing.

4.4 Wing calculation:-

 

AR

S

W

CLmax

Vstall

Vapp

L

L/W

B

C

Vc

Lc

L/W

6

0.223224

19.62

1.0377

10

11

23.54

1.2

1.574

0.192

13

23.94

1.22

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For different aspect ratiothe different
values of wing span and chord are calculated from the area values obtained from
mat lab calculations.

4.5
Fuselage calculation: – standard value
for fuselage length is calculated as 70% of the total wing span.

4.6 Tail calculation:-

H tail is selected as the rudder
effectiveness is more for H tail when compared to the conventional tail.

 

4.7 Drag calculation:-

Drag is calculated using
the formula D= 0.5*rho* v^2*s* Cl

Here coefficient of drag is the sum of
coefficients of frontal area drag , induced drag and skin friction drag.

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.    

Modeling
and Analysis:-

Modelling
of the whole model is done using CATIA V 5 software. We have chosen this
software as it is simple to operate.

All
the parts such as fuselage, Tail, wing are modelled separately in part design
and are assembled together in assembly module.

Analysis
is done for the wing that is both structural and flow analysis are done on the wing.
The forces considered on the wing while analyzing were the pressure acting on
the wing while it is at its cruising speed. The pressure value is calculated
with respect to the atmospheric value and the factor of safety for the wing
structure is 2.

The
results of the analysis are given below.

5.1Structural
analysis on Wing:-

Structural
analysis is done to determine the static strength of the structure mainly wings
as they are the main parts where large forces act . Structural Analysis is done
using Ansys workbench and the results obtained are in the forms of stress contours
that is maximum stress, maximum deformation etc.

 

 

5.2
CFD analysis on A/c:- Flow analysis is
one of the very important type of analysis as it determines the magnitude of
the aerodynamic forces acting on the wing such as lift and drag. The figures
show the residual plots of the flow around the MUAV. The conditions are optimized
for maximum cruise velocity achieved that is 13m/s.

 The results obtained are  Drag
=        

Lift =

 

 

 

The contours of velocity magnitude over
the complete MUAV are shown in above picture and the maximum values are
obtained on the wing surface.

 

 

 

Contours of static
pressure obtained when the values are projected on a plane .

Lift on the plane is
given the z component velocity of the MUAV when it is flying at cruise
velocity. We assumed that there are no other components and equating x and y
components to zero.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

x

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