Depression is a worldwide phenomenon which impact a large scale of people. People who suffers from Depression feels it’s affects on their daily life. Nowadays the common solution is to consume antidepressant peels, by using that it can cause a negative influence on the body (side effect). This review tries to put light on Music as a therapy method in various levels of depression. Depression In this changing world, increasingly severe changes are occurring in the frequency and types of stressors which, combined with certain personal vulnerabilities, are causing a general rise in depressive symptoms (Pérez et al., 2010).
Depression is a significant mental health problem in the rapidly growing aging population worldwide (Zhao, Bai, Bo & Chi 2016), and one of the most common chronic diseases, which usually influence the whole human being in a fundamental way. Depressive suffering is associated with psychological, physical, emotional, and social impairments (Leubner& Hinterberger, 2017). Without clinical treatment, it has the tendency to recur or to take a chronic course that can lead to loneliness (Alpass & Neville, 2003) and an increasing social isolation (Teo, 2012). Depression might have variety of consequences such as unhappy temper, reduced concentration or desire in most actions, being too thin or overweight, insomnia or hypersomnia, anxiety, exhaustion, feelings of worthlessness, and even thoughts of death or suicide. Such consequences might be more severe in adolescents who are passing through one of their most important and sensitive stages of their lives. Depression indicates lack of tonicity, loss of energy, feelings of weakness, of power-lessens, unhappiness, self-punishment, and the whole range of negative feelings (Rahmani et al., 2016). In the literature depression and melancholy are synonyms.
The term Melancholy is derived from the Greek melas (black) and kholê (bile). Melancholic is Characterized as sad mood, feeling of an infinite abyss, a hebetude and extinction of desire and followed by exaltation, irresistible attraction to death, ruins, nostalgia, mourning (Barroso & Garcìa, 2003). Depression has become very common in the past century. in any year millions of adults suffer from a clinically diagnosed depression, as mood disorder that often affects personal, vocational, social, and health functioning. Depression can be classified as a range severe degree, from dysthymia to major depression. Dysthymic disorder is another persistent depressive disorder characterized by chronic low-level depression, in U.S.A is estimated to be approximately 1.
5 percent of the adult population. It characterized by a depressed mood on most days for at least two years. The sufferer must not have gone for more than two months without experiencing two or more of the following symptoms: poor appetite or overeating; difficulty falling or staying asleep, or sleeping too much; low energy or fatigue; low self-esteem; poor concentration or difficulty making decisions; and feelings of hopelessness. To further meet the criteria, a person will have had no major depressive episodes during the first two years of the illness, and the symptoms should not be due to alcohol or drug abuse or a general medical condition. The symptoms must be serious enough to have caused significant distress or impairment in functioning at work and in social or other settings; indeed, many of those with dysthymia are socially withdrawn and unproductive. People with the condition may also experience anhedonia, an inability to derive pleasure from formerly pleasurable activities (Harvard Health Letter, 1999).
Dysthymic disorder is more common in adult women, equally common in both sexes of children, and with a greater prevalence in families. The causes of dysthymic disorder are believed to be similar to those listed for major depressive disorder, but the disorder is less well understood than is depression (Oyama, Oliver, Piotrowski & Nancy, 2017). Major depressive disorder is characterized by a syndrome of symptoms, present during a two-week period and representing a clinically significant change from previous functioning. The symptoms include at least five of the following: depressed or irritable mood for most of the day, diminished interest in previously pleasurable activities, significant unintentional weight loss or weight gain, insomnia or hypersomnia, physical agitation or slowness, loss of energy or fatigue, feelings of worthlessness or excessive guilt, indecisiveness or a diminished ability to concentrate, and recurrent thoughts of death. The clinical depression cannot be initiated or maintained by another illness or condition. Women are twice as likely to suffer from the disorder than are men (Oyama; Oliver; Piotrowski & Nancy, 2017). The etiology of depression can be Biological and genetic, resulting from Hormonal regulation and neurotransmission, Intoxication, Psychosomatic illnesses, Neurological diseases, Genetic factors find depressive families with a genetic or unconsciously transmitted predisposition (Barroso & Garcìa, 2003).
Depression may usually be easily to detected, not only can the general practitioner or the family make the diagnosis, but also the patient himself. Usually the solution is Medication together with psychiatric counselling is the most common combination in the treatment of depression. Psychotherapy has also been found to be effective, but verbal psychotherapy processing may be difficult or insufficient for some individuals. Therefore, therapies that allow non-verbal processing such as music therapy (Erkkilä et al., 2011). The Effects of Music Therapy on Depression Music has been with us since forever, as a worldwide instrument that people are using for different uses: dancing, jogging, relaxing etc.
music has the ability to connect to our emotions, positive and negative as one, and by that to affect our mood, behavior, thoughts and points of view. Depressive disorders have a neurochemical basis and have been associated with regional reductions in central nervous system volume, as well as in the number and/or size of glia and neurons in discrete brain areas (Manji, Drevets, & Charney, 2001). music can stimulate some brain areas that are strongly related with reasoning and cognitive function, it’s not only reduces depression, but can also repair neurodegenerative disturbances in brain cells by anti-apoptotic and neurotrophic factor expression, thereby facilitating neurogenesis, regeneration, and repair of neurons (Fukui & Toyoshima, 2008), as well as activate several processes, which facilitate brain development and/or plasticity (Manji, Drevets, & Charney, 2001). In the 21 century the most common treatment for depression is medicine (antidepressant peels). Pharmaceutical treatments for depression, using either tricyclic antidepressants or selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors using antidepressant peels makes no difference in the odds ratio of suicide attempts. Music, on the other hand has been found to be effective.
This beneficial effect has been in part explained by the response to music and the physiological connectivity of the mesolimbic system, which provokes pleasurable experiences (Ferguson et al., 2005). Music also arouses cognitive functions, it acts on anxiety, depressive phases and aggressiveness and therefore, considerably improves attitude, communication and independence (Soua, Voiriot, Picot & Herisson , 2009). People who suffer from depression often struggle to express themselves and regulate their emotion. A study conducted by Punkanen, Eerola & Erkkilä, (2011) found that participants with depression rated angry and sad music more intensely than happy and tender pieces of music. A research that conducted by Pérez et al.
, (2010) showed that Classical and Baroque music not only decrease the frequency of depressive symptoms, but also stimulate beneficial feelings and decrease levels of depression. Music offers a simple and elegant way to treat anhedonia, the loss of pleasure in daily activities, as well as several other mental disorders including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder (Manji, Drevets, & Charney, 2001). Music therapy has recently combined with mindfulness. Focusing on the past or future can lead to feelings of anxiety or depression (Hofmann et al., 2010) promotes a focus on the present with curiosity, acceptance, and openness as a way of observing one’s own thoughts and emotions from moment to moment (Baer, 2003; Kabat-Zinn, 1990). Results of a study by Broderick, (2005) supported the concept that mindful meditation can reduce a dysphoric mood, which otherwise may lead to a full depressive episode. As a potential intervention for depression, Mindful Music Listening suggests combining two techniques that have been shown to aid in depression in a way that should feel nonthreatening to most clients and may even prove enjoyable to many (Eckhardt, Kristen, Dinsmore & Julie, 2012). Summary Depression can lead to suicide, which accounts for about 1 million lives lost per year worldwide.
pharmacotherapy is the first line treatment, but it has its disadvantages, such as long response time, side effects and poor compliance to the medication regime. The concept of using a music as a therapy has start to become acceptable in the field of medicine. Although the common belief is that antidepressant is the best solution to deal with this disorder, Psychiatrists should recommend for a combination with music therapy to Increase the odds of recover.
To succeed with the therapy, there is a lot of responsibility on the shoulder of the Patient, because the change needs to come from his own will and the amount of energy that the petition wants to bring to the therapy. a problem with that is in almost all cases, depression includes low motivation, loss of will and lack of power (American Psychiatric Association, 2013). When examining the existing literature, only studies on people already suffering from depression were found. Future studies should Consider incorporating music therapy sooner than that, as a prevention method for people who are known to be inclined or in risk to develop depression.