Definitions and Terms
Doctrine may be defined as ‘set of principles or teachings taught and advocated in a state or in an organization’.
Doctrine (in Military)
In a Military, Doctrine may be defined as how military forces contribute to operations and engagements. It is a guide to actions, rather than hard and fast rules. Doctrine provides a common frame of reference across a complete force. It is descriptive rather than prescriptive and it constantly needs judgment in application. Doctrine is an overall statement of principles as to how forces are used at any stage.
Special warfare encompasses the role of special trained units or teams equipped with special weapons and equipment to support major operations during war to achieve major task.
The type of operations which need unique modes of employment, tactical techniques, equipment and often conducted in hostile, or denied environments and characterized by one or more of the following:-
(a) Time sensitive
(c) Conducted with and/or through indigenous forces
(d) Requiring special expertise
(e) Need Special Weapons and equipment
(f) Unique employment
Time sensitive Targets
Targets require immediate response because it is a highly lucrative, undertaking target of opportunity or it poses (or will soon pose) a danger to friendly forces.
A clandestine operation is an intelligence or military operation carried out in such a way that the operation goes unnoticed by the general population or specific enemy forces.
A counterinsurgency (COIN Ops) can be defined as “comprehensive military and civilian steps taken to simultaneously defeat and control insurgency and tackle its root causes”. An insurgency is a rebellion against a constituted govt.
These are the steps, techniques or strategies conducted by law enforcements agencies to counter terrorism
Direct Action (DA) Operations
1. DA operations are either overt or covert action against an enemy force. The aim of DA is to seize, damage, or destroy a target or capture / recover personnel or material in support of strategic/operational objectives or conventional forces.
2. These kinds of operation are characterized by
(a) Short-duration, small-scale offensive actions.
(b) May require raids, ambushes, direct assault tactics, conduct standoff attacks by firing from air, ground or maritime platforms, or may require designation from GLTD for precision-guided munitions from fighter aircrafts.
Psychological operations (PSYOPS) are planned operations to convey selected information and indicators to audiences to influence their emotions, motives, and objective reasoning, and ultimately the behavior of governments, organizations, groups, and individuals.
Special Ops teams (SOTs) are infiltrated behind enemy lines to provide the commander with intelligence on the enemy or to gather information on the terrain, local populace, etc. of an area. Verify, through observation or other collection methods, information concerning enemy capabilities, intentions, and activities in support of strategic/operational objectives or conventional forces. During these operations reconnaissance and surveillance actions are conducted at strategic or operational levels to complement national level data collection efforts. Moreover, the aim of these operations is also to collect meteorological, hydrographic, geographic, and demographic data and provide target acquisition, area assessment, and post-strike reconnaissance data.
Unconventional warfare is a support to a foreign insurgency or resistance movement against its legitimate government or state (e.g Indian support to PTM or TTP). Conventional warfare is used to reduce the opponent capability directly through attacks whereas, unconventional warfare is an attempt to achieve victory indirectly through a proxy force.