* with hyperactivity, inattention, impulsive behavior, and


*DEFINITION – RULE 51Child with a Disability: A child with a disability is said to be a child who has a behavior disorder, physical impairment, special needs, is developmental delay, has a mental disorder, has multiple disabilities, or has a health impairment, or anyone that requires special education services in an academic environment. If a child has any of these disabilities and needs a related service, but does not need special education, the child does not fit under this category. If the child needs related services and is in need of special education, they are considered a child with a disability. Other Health Impairment: If a child has any impairment such as limited strength, energy, development, or capacity to focus in a academic environment, they are considered to be a child with a disability. *CHARACTERISTICS:PHYSICAL:Hyperactivity commonly affects a child with ADD/ADHD. It is one of the most common physical characteristics of someone with ADD/ADHD. Inattention also affects a child with ADD/ADHD. It is found in most people with ADD/ADHD.Impulsivity is another physical symptom that affects a child with ADD/ADHD. LANGUAGE:It’s hard to tell whether someone has a language disorder or an attention issue. People who have attention issues can have issues with hyperactivity,  inattention, impulsive behavior, and distractibility. Although those are all signs of ADD/ADHD, they can also affect their language and communication.BEHAVIORAL/EMOTIONAL:Can have a hard time controlling emotions and behaviors because they may have outbursts if asked to do a task that they find challenging, or they simply just don’t want to do. If they are fidgeting in their desk, or have lost of built up energy that they just can’t sit still, it may be annoying to them if they want to get a task done. It may also be annoying to those around them, leading to them being self conscious about what they are doing all of the time. Children with ADD/ADHD may have sudden outbursts of aggressiveness – physically, mentally, or verbally. They can also react inappropriately when upset about a situation – this could be anywhere from throwing objects across the room, to having a temper tantrum on the floor.Children with ADD/ADHD often have anxiety because of the unknown timing of his hyperactivity, or outbursts. They may feel self conscious about what their peers are thinking about them. Overtime, children with ADHD may lose confidence because of their symptoms. They may feel that they have lost control over what happens around them, and become depressed because they feel that they have failed. They may also feel depressed because they feel like a burden at home, at school, or any other function that they are a part of. COGNITIVE:Cognitive development in children with ADD/ADHD can be interrupted. There is an area of the brain that develops social and academic development, and ADHD has been shown to interrupt the development of that part of the brain. Cognitive development can also be delayed depending on the child’s academic progress. *CAUSESThere is no known cause for ADD/ADHD, but certain things are known to play a role:GENETICS:ADD/ADHD is believed to  be caused by genetics. ADD/ADHD runs in families. If a parent has ADD/ADHD, ? – ½ of their children will have the disorder. If a parent has ADD/ADHD, there is more than a 50% chance of their child having the disorder. If an older sibling has ADD/ADHD, there is more than a 30% chance of the child having the disorder. PREGNANCY PROBLEMS:Studies have shown that children who are born with a low birth weight, are born premature, or the mother had a difficult pregnancy, they have a higher risk of having ADD/ADHD. Studies have also shown that children who have had head injuries to the frontal lobe of the brain – the area that controls impulses and emotions –  is also more likely to have ADD/ADHD. Studies have shown that if the mother smokes or drinks alcohol during pregnancy, the child is more likely to have ADD/ADHD than if she didn’t smoke or drink alcohol. *IMPACTS:ADD/ADHD can impact many parts of ones life. It not only affects the patients, it also affects their families, their school life, their community, and their future plans. *HOME LIFEFINANCIAL BURDEN:Having ADD/ADHD can have a toll on the family’s finances. Doctor’s visits, medication, and therapy. If your child needs a special education teacher, school counseling, or grade retention can cost extra if your child falls behind academically. Impulsivity in a child with ADD/ADHD can cause them to make poor judgements and do something they regret. This may put them in the juvenile system – Children with ADD/ADHD are 3 times more likely to be involved in the law. TIME CONSUMING:Parents will need to spend extra time with children in doing homework or other school activities. They may need things done in repetition in order to understand. This may take time away from other things the parents need to do. EFFECTS ON PARENTS:If the parent of an ADD/ADHD child gets frustrated because their child is lashing out, or has random emotional or behavioral outbursts, they need to remember to be patient and calm with their child. Parents may have anxiety, or feel like they are failing as parents. It can be difficult to work full time and raise a child with a disability. However, balance is important. Parents should make sure they are giving their child the extra attention they may need in certain areas. EFFECTS ON SIBLINGS:Siblings may receive less attention because of the overwhelming needs that the sibling with ADD/ADHD has. Sibling may be jealous because their sibling gets more attention from the parents – this may cause behavior problems in the siblings. The sibling(s) may feel left out or ignored – possibly leading to depression and anxiety. The siblings may feel that their siblings ADD/ADHD disorder is their fault. The parents stress could also be passed throughout the family. They may feel that their family routine will be interrupted because of their siblings unpredictable symptoms. FAMILY QUALITY OF LIFE:If a family has a plan for the future – vacation, moving, etc. – this could interrupt those plans if the child is going through a rough patch and needs time. The parents may need to rethink how they raise children. If the child with ADD/ADHD is not responding to certain techniques (ex. Time outs), then they need to think of a new way to parent. This may interrupt their quality of life if one child is getting raised one way and another is getting raised another way. This can cause a lot of stress in the family, which can decrease quality of life. Children with ADD/ADHD need extra monitoring and supervision, which may mean spending nights helping with homework. If parents don’t work together in making sure there is a routine, or making sure things get done in a consistent manner, there may end up being arguments within the family. If parents are arguing over the child with ADD/ADHD, the child may feel that is is his/her fault that they are arguing and that there is so much tension in the house. This will put unnecessary stress and weight on the shoulders of a child who already has so much to deal with. RELATIONSHIPS:ADD/ADHD children have a hard time making and keeping friends, and it is the same with relationships. They have a hard time starting and keeping conversations, and have a hard time in social situations. They will feel that they are not good enough for whoever they are with, and will feel self conscious when around others. They feel that they will say or do the wrong thing and worry about how the other feels about them. Someone with ADD/ADHD may have trouble remembering things – even if they are paying attention. Someone with ADD/ADHD has poor organizational skills, and would have a hard time finishing simple chores. The impulsivity in someone with ADD/ADHD may cause them to blurt out things they may not mean, and hurt the other person’s feelings. People with ADD/ADHD have trouble controlling their emotions, and may have random outbursts or lose their temper. This may cause many fights in relationships. *SCHOOL LIFETEACHER AWARENESS:The teacher needs to be aware of any children with ADD/ADHD so that they can give them the proper attention, as well as any special accommodations they may need from the school. NEEDS FOR A STUDY AID/TUTOR:The school should know if any disorder so that they can accommodate the student if they may need a tutor in a subject that they are having trouble with.MEDICATION AT SCHOOL:Some students with ADD/ADHD may need to take medication during school hours. In that case, the parents would need to fill out paperwork for the school to have permission to administer medication if needed. RELATIONSHIPS:Students with ADD/ADHD have a hard time making and keeping friends, which means that forming relationships at school can be difficult for some. It is very important that the teacher and student form a good relationship so that the student knows that they are not being ignored or feels like they are a burden because they may need extra attention. *COMMUNITY LIFEDRIVERS LICENSE:Someone with ADD/ADHD may have a difficult time obtaining a drivers license because they have a hard time paying attention. They may lose focus, or get angry if someone isn’t driving safely on the road. This could cause a wreck, which is unsafe for everyone. For those who do not obtain a driver’s license, it may be difficult to find transportation to get where you need to go. Most parents work all day and aren’t able to take you everywhere all of the time, so it could be frustrating. MOSTLY NORMAL COMMUNITY LIFE:For the most part, an individual with ADD/ADHD lives a normal community life. Aside from the transportation that they may need, an individual with ADD/ADHD does not need any extra assistance if they need to get around the community and can take part in normal community activities. *FUTUREEMPLOYMENT:An individual with ADD/ADHD may have a hard time receiving a job because of their inability to pay attention, or because they are disorganized. Some may feel that their disorder will affect their employment, so they don’t disclose that they have the disorder. COLLEGE:Some individuals may want to get a fresh start and not tell anyone that they have ADD/ADHD. Some individuals may not be good at note taking, or writing, which may cause low grades and failing the class. Some may feel that college is too overwhelming because it is not in their routine of things. It also can be stressful if they are taking too many credits. RELATIONSHIPS:Some want to form new relationships in college, and find new friends. This can be difficult for someone with ADD/ADHD because of their impulsivity and poor social skillsThey may feel that they are not making friends because of their disorder, causing them to feel low and not important. FAMILY:College can cause stress for the family of someone with ADD/ADHD because it’s something new. The family may be used to a routine, and monitoring them, but college they are out on their own. MILITARY:An individual with ADD/ADHD has a very small chance of getting accepted into the military. Their impulsivity, hyperactivity, and inability to pay attention are all red flags. Although it doesn’t disqualify someone from joining the military, having ADD/ADHD places restrictions in one being able to enlist. *TREATMENTSThe treatment offered to those with ADD/ADHD all depends on how severe the disorder is. MEDICATION:Medications such as methylphenidate and amphetamine compounds are common stimulants used in treating ADD/ADHD – which have a responsive rate of 70-80%. THERAPY:There are many different kinds of therapies that could help with treating ADD/ADHD – cognitive behavioral therapy, anger management, intervention, psychoeducation, family therapy, applied behavioral analysis, and support groups. All of these therapies will help share thoughts and feelings among others who have the same disorder, educate you on your disorder, help you manage your disorder, as well as help you talk to a professional about how to handle your negative thoughts. *TEACHING STRATEGIESRULES AND ROUTINES:Setting rules and routines in the classroom can help the student get into a pattern of what to do next. This keeps them organized and gives them a sense of time management. SUPERVISION:Supervising a student with ADD/ADHD is important in keeping them on task and making sure they don’t get distracted. ACCOMMODATIONS:Giving the student accommodations, such as extra learning tools – tutors, extra time on tests – will help the stress and anxiety levels decrease. SEATING ARRANGEMENTS:Having the individual sit where there are the least amount of distractions will help the student focus and get work done. Also, having the student sit near other students who have a positive attitude will help boost the confidence of the individual with ADD/ADHD. PREPARATION:Being prepared for class, as well as what the individual will do that day will help a lot. This will help you know what the child will do next, and he knows that you are giving him attention and aren’t forgetting about him. Also, be prepared for unplanned situations – such as outbursts, or anger spurts. Accidents happen, and students with ADD/ADHD can be unpredictable. SET REALISTIC GOALS:You want the individual with ADD/ADHD to be challenged, but you want them to be able to reach their goal in order for them to feel success. The goal is success, not failure. ALTERNATE PHYSICAL & MENTAL ACTIVITIES:Alternating between math problems and jumping jacks can help increase brain activity, as well as help the child focus more when they get back to the mental activity. USE METHODS TO REINFORCE APPROPRIATE BEHAVIOR:Using methods such as stars, or treats, will help students understand when they are doing something right. Do not yell or get angry if they do something wrong – simply talk them through the situation and explain each part in detail. Go through each step and explain which parts were good and which were bad. POSITIVE RELATIONSHIPS:Having positive relationships – between other students, other teachers, parents, and the individual student, will help the child see and learn how to form positive relationships themselves. Talk with other teachers on how they are doing in other classes, and share ideas on what is working and what is not. POSITIVE FEEDBACK:Giving positive feedback to the individual is important. They need to know when they are doing a good job, or when they did something right. The more often you tell them, the more they will do it. They enjoy the praise. COMMUNICATE WITH PARENTS:Interact with the individuals parents so that they know what is going on in school – tell them what is working at school and what is not working. Maybe they have things that work at home that you haven’t tried. HAVE REALISTIC EXPECTATIONS:Not every day is going to do the way you planned. So know that you may need a few tricks up your sleeve in order to deal with some unexpected issues. INCORPORATE INTERESTS INTO LESSON PLANS:Know what the individual’s interests are, and try to incorporate lessons or examples into your lectures and notes. This will get the child involved and interested in what they are learning. The child’s attention will be towards what you are teaching, and they have a greater chance of remembering it because he can incorporate it with one of his interests. *VIDEOThis video was made in order to see if you could tell which child has ADD/ADHD. 2 children, who are the same age and in the same grade, were asked the same questions. Can you tell which one has ADD/ADHD?https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-IO6zqIm88s


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