Criminogenic Needs-Based Supervision ModelSince 2012 the Criminogenic Needs-Based Supervision Model goes handin hand with neighborhood based supervision. This model is also different fromthe justice’s model and it focuses on assessing the criminogenic needs of anoffender. Criminogenic needs are those issuesthat are associated as risk factors to repeat criminal behavior.
For example,if an offender suffers from depression and anti-social behavior it can leadthem having weak self-control which can also cause reckless aggressivebehavior. The role of the probation andparole officer is to be their client’s enforcer by also creating a professionalrelationship with their clients and administer therapeutic treatment. Theofficers must also use the Risk-Needs-Responsivity instrumentto help assess and treat offenders to reduce recidivism. The Risk-Needs-Responsivityinstrument allows an officer to administer a level of risk for each offender,and to target and alter an offender’s criminogenic needs. The Start of Probation Probation is stillused as an alternative to incarceration and through probation an offender canfulfill their sentence two different ways. An offender can be mandated tofulfill their sentence by being placed on probation or an offender can beordered to be place on pretrial supervision.
Probation was first introduced inEngland during the Middle Ages. During these times cruel and unusualpunishments were used for no less than 200 crimes. Most of these crimes wereconsidered minor offenses and people become concerned about the severepunishment of the justice system. Eventually judicial punishment became morehumane and criminals were given a “binding over for good behavior,” which granted offenderstemporary release that allowed them to take measures to secure pardons orlesser sentences. In the United States different measures were being developed.Offenders were now able to purchase a “security” which was used as collateral for good behavior such asmodern-day bail. Another practice that was being used in the United States wasa motion used by judges called a “motion to quash”.
This motion would allowjudges to diminish unreasonable mandatory sentences. In 1831, the case ofCommonwealth v. Chase, introduced the concept of sentence suspension when JudgePeter Oxenbridge Thacher, suspended the case of the defendant, Jerusha Chase,granted that she stayed out of trouble. These practices developed the beginningof modern probation.
John Augustus,also known as the “Father of Probation,” became known as the firstprobation officer. Augustus became a member of the Washington Total AbstinenceSociety and abstained from alcohol use. He truly believed in the philosophy ofrehabilitation and he felt that alcohol abusers could be rehabilitated through,kindness and moral support rather than through convictions and jail sentences.With his theory in mind Augustus sought a career as a volunteer probationofficer which lasted 18-years. By 1858, during his career John Augustussuccessfully provided bail for 1,946 men and women. Augustus’ actions led tothe passing of the first probation statute in Massachusetts which authorizedthe mayor of Boston to appoint a paid probation officer. Soon after many statesadopted this statue and by 1956 probation was available to all adult offenders.