Course and ductility. For the tensile test the

   Course BEng Hons Mechanical Manufacturing Engineering Module TM614 Applied Mechanics Lead Tutor Geoffrey Newcomb Student Name Lal Kima Student ID 1236081 Submitted in 19 January 2018  List of Contents Abstract ……………………………………………………………………………………1 Introduction ………………………………………………………………………………. 1 1.0 Materials Testing (Destructive) ……………………………………………………. 11.1 Tensile Test……………………………………………………………………… 11.2 Bend Test………………………………………………………………………… 41.3 Hardness Test…………………………………………………………………… 52.

0 Materials Testing (Non-Destructive) ……………………………………………….62.1 Visual Test……………………………………………………………………….

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. 72.2 Liquid Penetrant Inspection…………………………………………………….. 82.3 Ultrasonic Test…………………………………………………………………… 93.0 Discussion …………………………………………………………………………….10Conclusion ……………………………………………………………………………….

..10Appendices ………………………………………………………………………………..

11References ……………………………………………………………………………….. 11          AbstractThis report covers both practical and research aspects ofmaterial test methods. Material testing is imperative to ensure that a differenttypes of material testing are used to prove their strength, ability, ductility andquality of product.

”For suppliers, the mechanical properties are an important measureof product quality, and buyers often require certification of the value” (ADMET,2015).  IntroductionThe paper is based on both of destructive andnon-destructive material testing. The metal testing is vitally imperative forensuring its strength and ductility. For the tensile test the materials of thespecimen can be different, however the test procedure is the same.     1.0  Material Testing (Destructive)According to the Business Dictionary (2018) the purpose ofdestructive testing is to determine service life and to detect designweaknesses that may not show up under normal working conditions. In destructivetesting the specimen cannot be reused more than once.1.

1  Tensile TestA website (Laboratory Testing Inc., 2017) explains that thetensile test is a destructive test method that provides information about itsstrength, yield strength and its ductility of the material. Tensile testing isimperative for ensuring a safe, high quality material and avoiding the majorliabilities associated with providing non-compliant products (ADMET, 2017). Tensiletest is one of the most fundamental types of material test which can beperformed on materials such as plastics, metals, composites, paper, rubbers,elastomers, fabrics, films, adhesives, etc. The test is simple, relatively cheap,and fully standardized. The tensile test is a must for ensuring the specimennot to be loosed before the test is applied.

Otherwise the test result can bedifferent or cannot produce the right answer. The test sample is securely heldby top and bottom grips attached to the tensile or universal testing machine(Laboratory Testing Inc. 2017). This is proved by the test where it had beencarried out in the Newcastle Aviation Academy. During the tension test, thegrips are moved apart at a constant rate to stretch the specimen. The force onthe specimen and its displacement is continuously monitored and plotted on astress-strain curve until failure.Tensile strength in a material is obtained by measuring themaximum load.

 Thisdiagram represents a brittle material (glass) Thediagram shows that a material with some elasticity and limited plasticity(high-carbon steel) Thefigure represents a material with some elasticity and good plasticity (e.g.soft aluminium).   The above diagram shows the test result of the UltimateTensile Strength  Tensile testing results can be included stiffness, maximumload, and deflection of maximum load, work at maximum load, load of break, workat break, stress, strain, Young Modulus, and chord slope. The process iscarried out by placing the test specimen in the test machine and extending ituntil it breaks.  Advantages Disadvantages ü  Allowing even materials are ductile ü  Providing no information about the material at different temperatures        1.2Bend Test “The bend test is often used as a measure of the ductilityof a material” (Philip and Bolton, 2002). This test is a simple and inexpensivetest that can be used to evaluate both soundness and ductility of a material.

Thebend test, also known as bending test, is used for the materials such asceramics or glass, wood or plastic, and concrete or stone. The TWI (2018)proves that the test can be carried out on the shop floor, needing no expensivetest equipment and test specimens are easily prepared (TWI, 2018). This bendingtest may be guided or free formed. The bend test method can be various such asmandrel test, bending on a vee block, bending on a block of soft material andthe angle of bend. According to the author of Materials for engineering(Bolton, 2000, p.

44) other methods can also be used, e.g. bending round amandrel, free bending and pressure bending.

The author has been furtherdiscussed that the angle of bend can be withstood without breaking or cracking.The mandrel form of test is the simplest method test. Thistest is suitable for medium and thin thickness sheet for angles of bend up to120° while the medium thickness sheet with bend angles up to 90° is suitablefor bending on a vee block.   Advantages Disadvantages ü  Ease of the specimen preparation and testing ü  Testing methods are sensitive to specimen ü  Test is simple and cheap          1.3 Hardness Test The hardness test is defined as the ability of a materialto withstand scratching (abrasion) or indentation by another hard body. It isan indication of the wear resistance of the material (Timings, 1998). Thehardness of materials is started by measuring their resistance to indentation.

Various methods are used, but the most common methods are Brinell, Rockwell andVickers hardness tests. This test is measured by pressing a hardened steel ballor diamond point into the metal’s surface.Five major hardnessscales are used in hardness testing such as Brinell-HB, Rockwell-HR, Knoop-HK,Vickers-HV and Leeb hardness test. The Brinell test is the oldest hardness testmethod but still in common use today, determining the hardness of castings andforgings. The Brinell hardness test uses a carbide ball indenter and methodsare defined by ASTM E10 and 9SO 6506 standards. Rockwell hardness testis one the destructive testing of the hardness test. The Rockwell hardness testis inexpensive, fast and no requirement of a highly skilled operator as themachine has provided the added advantage.

This test is generally easier to do,and more accurate than other types of hardness test methods. The Rockwellvalues are based upon the depth of the indentation while Brinell and Vickersare based upon the area of indentation.  Figure: RockwellHardness Test Vickers hardness testis similar to the Brinell test, but Vickers uses a squared-based diamondpyramid indenter. This test is called microhardness test and is used for thinsections and small parts, or case depth work. The Knoop hardness test is doneat test forces from 10g to 1000g and the test needs a high-powered microscopeto measure the indent size (Instron). Leeb test is one of thehardness tests to use for the materials.

Leeb test is also known as Equotipwhich uses a modern electronic version of Scleroscope. Leeb test uses a carbideball hammer that is spring rather than gravity powered (Instron).    Advantages Disadvantages ü  Taking heavy loads for testing ü  Consisting of several short ü  It’s easy to perform ü  Overlapping scales ü  Big materials can be tested ü  Only surfaces can be tested ü  One indenter is used for all types of metals ü  Taking time for experiment ü  It’s quick to test (1-30 sec)   ü  Inexpensive      2.0  Material Testing(Non-Destructive)A website called American Society for NondestructiveTesting (ASNT, 2017) states that Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) is a test ofmaterial which can still be used the part when the test or inspection iscompleted. The NDT involves inspection, evaluation of materials, assemblies orcomponents for discontinuities, or differences in characteristics withoutdestroying the serviceability of the part or system. This statement agreesPrakash (2009) that NDT may be defined as those testing methods in which thematerial under test is not destroyed or to say that the future usefulness ofthe material under test is not impaired.

Various test methods can be used onNDT Testing such as Ultrasonic Testing (UT), Leak Testing (LT), Visual Testing(VT), Acoustic Emission Testing (AE), Eddy-Current Testing (ECT), Laser TestingMethods (LM), Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR), etc.  2.1  Visual Test Visual Test is the most common test Non-Destructive Testing(NDT) techniques. It is the oldest test for Non-Destructive Testing (NDT) Techniquesas well. Visual Test is easy to apply and the test simple with low cost.Many defects can be detected by applying direct visualinspection. Boroscopes, Magnifying glasses, Micrometres, UV Lights, and Mirrorsare mechanical and optical aids used in visual testing (Tech Service Products,2018).

According to a report from the British Institute ofNon-Destructive Testing (2013) “Much of the success of visual inspectiondepends on the surface condition and the lighting arrangements.”  The below picture is useful tools for visual testing   Advantages Disadvantages ü  Minimum training ü  Misinterpretation of scratches ü  Minimum part preparation      2.2  Liquid Penetrant InspectionLiquid Penetrant Inspection, also known as dye penetranttest, is one of the simplest way to test for non-destructive testing technique.It is also widely used and can detect only surface flaws in every materials. Adye or fluorescent liquid is used as penetrating medium which technique iscalled either dye-penetrant technique or fluorescent-penetrant technique(Prakash, 2009). These spraying have been used for a dye penetrant testing There are six steps can be carried out when doing the dyepenetrant testing as follows;1.    Pre-cleanpart.

The surface needs to be cleaned from dirt, dust, rust, oil,etc.2.    Applypenetrant. This step is done by spraying penetrant from the aerosolcan. This normally takes 5-30 minutes but should never be long to dry. Thewritten procedure on the aerosol can should be followed (NBBI, 2018). 3.

    Removepenetrant.The third step is to remove penetrant. This penetrantshould be removed with dry, clean, lint-free rags until thoroughly clean. Thematerial should be cleaned until there is no penetrant visible on the surface.4.    Applydeveloper. A thin, lightcoating of developer should be sprayed on the part being examined. A dwell timeneeds to be observed to allow time for the dye to exit the flaws and create anindication (flaw) in the developer (NBBI, 2018).

A developer takes an hour.5.    Evaluateindications.Evaluation is measured by length of indications, not lengthof the flaw. The defects of the linear indications are rejectable, but theround indication is norelevant. 6.    Post-cleanpart.

This is the last part of the dye penetrant test which needsto be cleaned and removed all developer after the material has been evaluated.   The figure shows how to inspect the depth of damage byusing dye penetrant inspection  Advantages Disadvantages ü  It is easy to inspect ü  Multiple process steps must be performed ü  Few material limitations ü  Detects only surface flaws ü  High sensitivity to small surface discontinuities ü  Fumes can be hazardous   2.3  Ultrasonic Test Ultrasonic testing is one of the most popularnon-destructive testing techniques for the detection of internal flaws. Thistesting is based upon the interaction of sound waves with the internalstructure of the material (Prakash, 2009). This testing is often performed onsteel and alloys and other metals.

  Advantages Disadvantages ü  The test does not cause any health hazard to the operator to the persons standing nearby ü  High degree of operator skill is needed ü  It’s sensitive to the surface ü  Surface must be accessible to probe ü  Only single sided is needed ü  Couplant required  In the ultrasonic testing the transducer generates highfrequency ultrasonic energy. The high- frequency sound waves are transmittedinto a material to detect imperfections or to locate changes in materialproperties. The sound energy is introduced and propagates through the materialsin form of waves.

When there is a discontinuity in the wave path, part of theenergy will be reflected back from the flaw surface (NDT Resource Centre). Pulse echo is the most commonly used in ultrasonic testingtechnique. The sound is introduced into a test object and echoes from internalimperfections are returned to a receiver (NDT Resource Centre). Ultrasonictesting techniques are not only used for quality control but also used inindustry for inspection of incoming materials (Prakash, 2009).    3.0 Discussion As different components there can be different methods forboth destructive and non-destructive testing.

Some testing like X-ray testingare more expensive and slow process while some have good value and simple withlow cost. Conclusion Despite the advance in both Destructive Testing (DT) andNon-Destructing Testing (NDT) technology, some testing will continue to be atechnique which many industries rely on for ensuring their quality examination. ( ) :  Appendices       References  ADMET (2017). WhyTensile Testing is Imperative for Metals Manufacturers Internet.Available at:

com/why-tensile-testing-is-imperative-for-metals-manufacturers/>Accessed: 16 January 2018. ADMET (2015). The Importanceof Materials Testing Internet. Available at; http://info.admet.

com/blog/bid/49922/The-Importance-of-Materials-TestingAccessed; 18 January 2018.  ASNT (2017). Introductionto Nondestructive Testing Internet. Available at; https://www.asnt.org/MinorSiteSections/AboutASNT/Intro-to-NDT  Accessed; 18 January 2018.  BINDT (2013).

Visual Inspection Internet. Available at:< http://www.bindt.org/What-is-NDT/Visual-inspection/ >Accessed: 18 January 2018.  Bolton, W (2000).

Materials for Engineering. 2nded. Oxford: Newnes. Instron.

Knoop TestInternet. Available at; http://www.instron.us/en-us/our-company/library/test-types/hardness-test/knoop-test  Accessed; 17 January 2018.

 Business Dictionary (2018). Destructive Testing Internet. Available at:

com/definition/destructive-testing.html > Accessed;18 January 2018.  NBBI (2018). LiquidPenetrant Examination Internet. Available at: Accessed: 18 January 2018.

 Philip, M; Bolton, W (2002). Technology of Engineering Materials. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann. Prakash, R (2009).

Non-Destructive Testing Techniques.Kent: New Age Science.  Timings, R.L (1998). Engineering Materials. 2nded.

London: Longman.  Laboratory Testing Inc. (2017). Tensile Testing Specimens, Fasteners, Tubing, Rebar, Welds &Castings Internet. Available at:

com/services/materials-testing/mechanical-testing/tensile-testing/>Accessed: 16 January 2018.  Tech Service Products (2018). Visual Testing is Oldest and Most Common NDT Technique Internet.

Available at: < http://tspndt.com/non-destructive-testing-industrial-supplies-blog/visual-testing-is-oldest-and-most-common-ndt-technique >Accessed: 18 January 2018. TWI (2018). BendingTesting Job Knowledge 73 Internet. Available at: Accessed: 16 January 2018.

          

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